P.P. Pitchlynn, Speaker of the National Council of the Choctaw Nation and Choctaw delegate to the government of the United States

Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal

Peter Perkins Pitchlynn was the Choctaw Principal Chief from 1864-1866
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn was the Choctaw Principal Chief from 1864-1866

Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal, was a dissertation written by Samuel James Wells 1 for his Master Degree in Arts.

Most studies of Indian-white relations in the Old Southwest either condemn federal and state policies as expansionist and racist or defend those policies as necessary and proper.  Such approaches tend to paint the historical picture in dichotomous tones neglecting to analyze the subtle, positive relationships between Indians and whites that existed outside of confrontation.  This dissertation addresses one such area concerning white countrymen and their mixed-blood offspring living with the Choctaw tribe before Removal.

Much of what transpired between the Choctaw nation and the United States government from 1795 until Choctaw Removal in 1830 was heavily affected by this group of white countryman and their Choctaw speaking children. The Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Creek experience was similar.  There is also plentiful anecdotal evidence from the nineteenth century historians that countrymen and mixed bloods were commonplace in Indian tribes of Mississippi Territory. Indeed there exist several thousand names from government claims records and commission hearings, as well as genealogical evidence, which indicate a broad occurrence of mixed bloods, especially in the Choctaw tribe.

This study lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This study includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value.


  1. Samuel James Wells was born July 18, 1836, at Biloxi, Mississippi, where he attended public and Parochial schools until 1954. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in American Studies, and a Master of Arts degree with a major in History from the University of Southern Mississippi.

    His work experience includes twenty years of military service, four of which were spent as an instructor of recruits. He also as an instructor and teaching fellow at the University of Southern Mississippi from 1979 until 1987. During the same period he has published articles in several journals, winning the Kenneth R. Wesson award from the University of Alabama for an article in 1983, and co-edited a collection of studies on Choctaw Indians of Mississippi. He has acted in a consulting capacity for several projects of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians and the Mowa Band of Choctaw Indians of Alabama. He has acted as a partner in an editorial and research consulting firm from 1982 to 1987.

    He is a member of Kappa Delta Pi, National Education Honor Society: Phi Kappa Phi, national honor society; and Phi Alpha Theta, National Honor History Society.[]

  2. In the process of putting this dissertation online it was discovered that pages 78 and  177a were missing.  It was determined that the dissertation reader or printing plant must have mislaid the pages during their processing. It is agreed the pages must have been present when read by five different professors who didn’t sign their names to documents without careful scrutiny.

    We feel those two pages are lost forever, as all other working copies eventually were destroyed. Dr Wells feels that the loss of page 78 won’t disrupt the train of thought because he is fairly repetitive in his arguments.  The loss of the table is a sore point because notes have been destroyed that might have allowed for the rebuilding of the Mixed Blood Captains.

    Several years ago we put the Armstrong Roll online, included with that roll were the following captains from various districts in the Mississippi Choctaw Nation:

    Please remember these are not the original lists Dr. Wells had with his dissertation.[]

Wells, Dr. Samuel James. Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal. University of Southern Mississippi. 1987. © Dr. Samuel James Wells, 1987. Used by permission.

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9 thoughts on “Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal”

  1. My 5th great grandfather was Jack “Jock” Jenkins. I have seen references that state he is listed on the Dancing Rabbit Treaty, but I can’t find anything that has his name.

    1. In the Pitchlynn cemetery near the Tombigbee river in Mississippi where John Pitchlynn the father of Peter Perkins Pitchlynn is buried, is also a Matilda Collins Jenkins. I don’t know if connected but since John was the interpeture for the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, I wouldn’t doubt there is a connection. I could not find this name anywhere else.

  2. Ernest herrington

    Born in 1878 ? My great grandfather Benjamin Zachary Rogers , his father Raspberry Rogers , his father Samuel Rogers are from Tombigbee area Mississippi n Alabama Philadelphia MS n Butler Ala, we are of Choctaw decent and trying to find information, my Grt Grandfather Ben killed his father Raspberry with an axe , he and two of his brothers on the run headed west in 1895 ? He returned once to a school house in Butler Ala sitting on horse he recognized his sister by fence school yard , they spoke briefly he gave her gum then headed back west and never returned , Lol I know this is long winded but hoping someone from that area knows of this story, my grt Uncle the son of Ben is not doing well health wise , wanting to know our Choctaw connection thanks !

  3. My great x4 grandpa signed the treaty of dancing rabbit he was pennasha
    What does that mean for someone tracing back

  4. My 2nd time great grand mother, Eliza Perry(Choctaw) Listed in the Indian Census 1885-1940. I am looking for any indian relatives, not sure where to go from here

  5. My great-grandmother was Sarah Emma Hutchins, born 1852 in Leake Co., MS. Her father was Thomas M. Hutchins. She said that her mother was a Choctaw Indian. My grandfather, her son, said that one of his relatives signed the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. With this little information, is there any possibility to find out who my Choctaw relative was?

  6. My great great grandfather was Ben Hempfield of Tilton, Ms. He was born around 1850. According to my grandmother’s memory book he was a Chief and had a headdress to nearly the floor plesant. His daughter’s name and my great grand mother was Maggie Elizebeth Hempfield and was married to John F. Mulford. I want to know more and do not know how.

    1. My family has recently discovered through several different sources that my 3xgreat grandfather was David McCoy, Choctaw Chief from 1854-1857, on my maternal side.
      I am looking for his parents information. So much conflicting info at this point.

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