Topic: Indian Removal

Peter Perkins Pitchlynn was the Choctaw Principal Chief from 1864-1866

Pitchlynn Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Pitchlynn Choctaw family, although represented by one of the smallest name lists in this study, has a long and noted history in the literature of the Old Southwest and Indian Territory (see Chart 18). The eldest Pitchlynn, Isaac, was still alive in 1804 although in ill health. His son, John Pitchlynn, Jr., is recorded as the Choctaw interpreter at the Treaty of Hopewell in 1786 and for nearly half a century was a respected and honored countryman in Choctaw country. John lived a long while on Old Woman’s Creek, a tributary of the Oknoxabee (or Noxobee) River which itself

Nail Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

[92]Another ubiquitous family, the Nails (see Chart 17), was intermarried into several full-blood and mixed-blood families. Cushman, while visiting the gravesites of some noted Choctaws in Indian Territory, discussed the Nail family: “Close by that of Colonel David Folsom’s was the grave of Joel H. Nail, a brother-in-law to Colonel Key to Chart Probable = P,  Countryman = C,  Yes = Y,  Trader = T, Married = md,  Mixed Blood = mb Chart 17[92a] [93]Folsom, and grandfather of Joel H. Nail, now living in Caddo, Indian Territory. He was another true and noble specimen of a Choctaw Christian man. A

LeFlore Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

When prominent mixed-blood families began to emerge from the Choctaw people in the early 1800s they usually did so where one or both parents were mixed bloods themselves. A case in point is the Leflore family. According to Cushman, 1Cushman, History, 343. the brothers Michael and Louis were living in[90] Choctaw country as early as the late eighteenth century. 2Another Leflore, Henry, is found in 1770 in Natchez as an interpreter (probably with the Choctaw tribe which began to frequent that area after the French destruction of the Natchez tribe) for the British, indicating that he had spent some years with

Juzan Genealogy Chart

Juzan Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

One of the earliest and most colorful of the mixed-blood lines is the Juzan family (see Charts 14 and 15). The noted Choctaw historian Muriel Wright discussed the history and genealogy of the family in a little-known, private letter to a Juzan descendent in 1931, writing: “A young Frenchman by the name of De Juzan, acting as military aide to Chevalier De Noyan, fell in a battle [Ackia] between the French and the Chickasaws, in May 1736….Whether De Juzan was connected in any way with the Juzan family among the Choctaws is uncertain at this time, although it has been

Jones Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Blood

[80]The Jones family represents one of the longest lists of this study with sixty-one family members being listed in records (see Chart 13). Despite the probable duplication of Key to Chart Probable = P,  Countryman = C,  Yes = Y,  Trader = T, Married = md,  Mixed Blood = mb Chart 13[81a] [82]names there are by conservative estimate more than fifty valid individuals represented. Of the twenty-five on the Armstrong roll a family total of one hundred nineteen yields a family average size of just below five. At least four mixed bloods are named: William, Soloman, Polly, and Siney, with

Indian Removal and the Legacy

[177]The articles of removal of the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek were set into motion immediately. By 1831 and 1832 when Removal was in full force mixed bloods still maintained their positions of trust and authority within the tribe. During Removal the percentage of mixed-blood captains — the headmen and leaders of the organized emigrant bands bound for the new Indian nation -was greater than their percentage within the overall population of the tribe (see Chart 22). Their understanding of the English language and the ways of Americans became even more valuable as the bands of emigrants made their way

From Alliance to Removal

[138]Throughout the Jeffersonian period and later, the white countrymen and mixed bloods expanded their influence over the full-blood tribal members. One aspect of this can be seen by analyzing the ratio of full-blood to mixed-blood Choctaw signers of treaties with the United States. CHART 19 Breakdown of Choctaw treaty Signers Year Treaty Full Bloods Mixed Blood 1786 Hopewell 29  0 1801 Ft. Adams 15 1 (6%) 1802  Ft. Confederation 10  0 1803 Hoe Buckintoopa 10 0 1805 Mt. Dexter 14  9 (39%) 1816 Trading House 11 2 (15%) 1820 Doaks Stand 78 25 (24%) 1825 Washington 4* 4 (50%) 1830

Jefferson, Mixed Bloods and Frontier Defense

[102]By the beginning of the nineteenth century at least two major changes had altered the political environment affecting the Choctaw Indians. Within the Choctaw tribe several countrymen were beginning to exert influence in tribal decisions. Although not yet accepted as equals to the chiefs, white men such as Nathaniel Folsom and John Pitchlynn were respected and utilized as counselors in negotiations between the tribe and American officials. External to the tribe, the United States had negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo in 1795 with Spain and assumed economic hegemony over the tribes which mainly resided on lands north of the

Choctaw Indian Treaty Signers, 1830

There exists several thousand names from government claims records and commission hearings, as well as genealogical evidence, which indicate a broad occurrence of mixed bloods in the Choctaw tribe. This study lists the names and families of the known mixed bloods and examines their role in tribal history, especially regarding land treaties during the Jeffersonian years preceding Removal. This study includes a database of over three thousand names of known and probable mixed bloods drawn from a wide range of sources and therefore has genealogical as well as historical value. Readers interested in more information should start their research here: