Biography of E. D. Hicks

If you were fortunate enough to be able to see a copy of the Laws of the Cherokee Nation published in 1852 you could find on pages three and four, the first printed law of the Cherokee Tribe, promulgated on Sept. 11, 1808 at Broom’s Town. It has the approval of Enola or Blackfox as Principal Chief and Pathkiller as Second Chief. It bears the signature of Charles Hicks as “Sec’y. to Council.”

Broom’s Town was the home of Chief Broom whose daughter Nancy, a member of the Wolf clan married Nathan Hicks, a white, man. Nathan and Nancy Hicks were the parents of Charles, William and Elizabeth Hicks who married James Vann, Richard Fields, Eliphas Holt and William Campbell. There were possibly other brothers and sisters, but their names are unknown. Charles Hicks was probably born in the decade between 1760 and 1770. It is not known when he was educated as there were no schools among the Cherokees during his boyhood. He joined the Church of the United Brethren at Spring Place and was baptized on April 10, 1813, at which time the missionaries, as was their wont, conferred upon him the middle name of Renatus, or the Renewed; Charles Renatus Hicks.

When the constitutional act of May 6, 1817 was passed at Amoch it was signed by Second Chief Charles Hicks, but he failed as he did in practically every instance to append his official title.1

In October 1817 he was described as follows: “He is a half-breed Cherokee, about fifty years of age. He has very pleasant features and an intelligent countenance. He speaks the English language with utmost facility and with great propriety–I was exceedingly surprised that a Cherokee should be able to obtain so extensive a knowledge of English as he possessed: He reads better than one-half of the white people and writes an easy hand. For thirty years he has been, as occasions required, an interpreter for the United States. As a man of integrity, temperance and intelligence he has long sustained a most reputable character.

He was Treasurer2 of the Cherokee Nation in 1825 as well as Second Chief. His residence was in Chickamauga District on October 12, 18263.

His last known signature was attached to a Council Bill of November 28, 1826 and he probably died shortly after this date and during 1827 his brother William Hicks became Principal Chief, which office he held until October 1828.

Chief Charles R. Hicks was the father of Elijah Hicks who was born June 20, 1796. He was Clerk of Council in 1822 and shortly afterward married Miss Margaret Ross, born July 5, 1803. He was living in Coosawatee District in October 18264. He was President of the National Committee during the year of 1827. He was appointed editor of the Cherokee Phoenix on August 1, 18325 and retained that position until May 31, 1834 The press was confiscated and destroyed after that date.”

Elijah Hicks was a Captain of one of the Emigrant Cherokee detachments. His detachment, according to Chief Ross’ statement embraced eight hundred fifty eight individuals, fifty-four of whom died en-route. They were the second contingent to start, the date of same being September 9, 1833 and arrived in the Western Cherokee Nation in advance of the other trains on January 1. 1839.

He was a signer of the Constitution of 1839 and settled on the California at the present site of Claremore, where he conducted a general store and called his home Echota or as he spelled it and as it is pronounced “Sauty.” He was elected a delegate to Washington in 1839 and 1843. Elected Clerk of the Cherokee Senate in 1845 and having been chosen as Senator from Saline District which at that time embraced over ten million acres of land and extended west to the one hundredth meridian, he was elected president of the Senate. He died on August 6, 1856 and is buried in the cemetery at Claremore. His wife died in 1862.

The children of Elijah and Margaret Hicks were: Senora; Jane who married John Wardell Stapler; Daniel Ross who married Nancy Jane Rider and Evaline Linder; Mary A. Chambers and Mary Elizabeth Rockwell; and Victoria Susan who married DeWitt Clinton Lipe.

Daniel Ross Hicks was born August 26, 1827 in Chickamauga District, Cherokee District and Cherokee Nation. He married Nancy Jane Rider born June 6, 1839. She was the daughter of Amelia (Alberty) Rider and the grand daughter of Austin and Mare Pauline (Stan) Rider. She was also the grand daughter of Moses and Sallie (Wright) Alberty. She graduated from the Female Seminary in February 1855. She was teaching the National school near Claremore Mound in 1858 and 1859 and at the expiration of the latter term she married Mr. Hicks, who was at that time sheriff of Cooweescoowee District with a jurisdiction extending west to the hundredth meridian. She died January 9, 1866. He was elected judge of Cooweescoowee District in 1867 and 1869. Executive Councilor on November 13, 1872, Clerk of Tahlequah District in 1875, Clerk of Council in 1878 and 1879 and Clerk of the Senate in 1881. He died February 12, 1883.

Daniel Ross and Nancy Jane Hicks were the parents of Edward Daniel Hicks, born January 1, 1866. He was educated in the National school and at the University of Arkansas. Was bookkeeper for Stapler and Sons at Tahlequah for several years and later purchased this business.

While at Oowala he married on September 27, 1885 Miss Elizabeth Henrietta born November 21, 1867, daughter of Hon. Frank Musgrove, a wealthy farmer of that neighborhood.

They are the parents of a family that does credit to their community, namely; Janie Stapler, born September 10, 1886, graduated from the Female Seminary June 9, 1903 and married John Griffith Harnage, now deceased; Joseph Daniel, born March 27, 1888, married Francis J. Lindsey who graduated from the Female Seminary May 27, 1908; Clara Eva born February 10, 1890 and married John Reed Alley; William Pendleton, born Sept. 2, 1896 and married Margaret Kay Roll; Edward, born March 29, 1898 and Margaret Enola Hicks. The latter a beautiful and popular young lady is now deceased.


Starr, Emmett. History of the Cherokee Indians and Their Legends and Folk Lore. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: The Warden Company. 1921

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