Micmac Birchbark Box with Porcupine Quills

Micmac Tribe

Micmac Indians, Mi’kmaq First Nation. (Migmak, ‘allies’; Nigmak, ‘our allies.’ Hewitt). Alternative names for the Micmac, which can be found in historical sources, include Gaspesians, Souriquois, Acadians and Tarrantines; in the mid-19th century Silas Rand recorded the word wejebowkwejik as a self-ascription. 1 An important Algonquian tribe that occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Islands, the north part of New Brunswick, and probably points in south and west Newfoundland. While their neighbors the Abnaki have close linguistic relations with the Algonquian tribes of the great lakes, the Micmac seem to have almost as distant a relation to the group as the Algonquians of the plains 2

Micmac Tribe History

If Schoolcraft’s supposition be correct, the Micmac must have been among the first Indians of the north east coast encountered by Europeans, as he thinks they were visited by Sebastian Cabot in 1497, and that the 3 natives he took to England were of this tribe. Kohl believes that those captured by Cortereal in 1501 and taken to Europe were Micmac. Most of the early voyagers to this region speak of the great numbers of Indians on the north coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and of their fierce and warlike character. They early became friends of the French, a friendship which was lasting and which the English, after the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, by which Acadia was ceded to them, found impossible to have transferred to themselves for nearly half a century. Their hostility to the English prevented for a long time any serious attempts at establishing British settlements on the north coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, for although a treaty of peace was concluded with them in 1760, it was not until 1779 that disputes and difficulties with the Micmac tribe ceased. In the early wars on the New England frontier the Cape Sable Micmac were especially noted.

The missionary Biard, who, in his Relation of 1616, gives a somewhat full account of the habits and characteristics of the Micmac and adjacent tribes, speaks in perhaps rather too favorable terms of them. He says: “You could not distinguish the young men from the girls, except in their way of wearing their belts. For the women are girdled both above and below the stomach and are less nude than the men.  Their clothes are trimmed with leather lace, which the women curry on the side that is not hairy. They often curry both sides of elk skin, like our buff skin, then variegate it very prettily with paint put on in a lace pattern, and make gowns of it; from the same leather they make their shoes and strings. The men do not wear trousers they wear only a cloth to cover their nakedness.” Their dwellings were usually the ordinary conical wigwams covered with bark, skins, or matting. Biard says that “in summer the shape of their houses is changed; for they are broad and long that they may have more air.” There is all evident attempt to show these summer bowers in the map of Jacomo di Gastaldi made about 1550 given in vol. III of some of the editions of Ramusio. Their government was similar to that of the New England Indians; polygamy was not common, though practiced to some extent by the chiefs; they were expert, canoemen and drew much of their subsistence from the waters. Cultivation of the soil was very limited if practiced at all by them, when first encountered by the whites. Biard says they did not till the soil in his day.

Micmac Divisons

Seven Mi'kmaq Divisions
The Seven Mi’kmaq Divisions

According to Rand 3 they divided their country, which they called Megumage, into 7 districts, the head-chief living in the Cape Breton district. The other six were Pictou, Memramcook, Restigouche, Eskegawaage, Shubenacadie, and Annapolis. The first three of these formed a group known as Sigunikt; the other three formed another group known as Kespoogwit. In 1760 the Micmac bands or villages were given as Le Have, Miramichi Tabogimkik, Pohomoosh, Gediak (Shediac), Pictou, Kashpugowitk (Kespoogwit), Chignecto, Isle of St Johns, Nalkitgoniash, Cape Breton, Minas, Chigabennakadik (Shubenacadie), Keshpugowitk (Kespoogwit, duplicated), and Rishebouctou (Richibucto). The Gaspesians are a band of Micmac differing somewhat in dialect front the rest of the tribe.

Micmac Culture and Life

The Micmacs have a system of communicating while in the woods. Sticks are placed in the ground; a cut on one of them indicates that a message in picture-writing on a piece of birch bark is hidden near by under a stone. The direction in which the stick leans from its base upward indicates that in which the party moved, and thus serves as a convenient hint to those who follow to keep off their hunting grounds.

A game much in use within the wigwams of the Micmacs in former times is that called by some writers altestakun or wŏltĕs takûn. By good native authority it is said that the proper name for it is wŏltĕstōmkwŏn. It is a kind of dice game of unknown antiquity, undoubtedly of pre-Columbian origin. It is played upon a circular wooden dish, properly rock maple, almost exactly a foot in diameter, hollowed to a depth of about three-fourths of an inch at its center. This dish plays an important role in the older legends of the Micmacs.

Another Micmac game is tooādijik or football. The goals were of two sticks placed slantingly across each other like the poles of the traditional wigwam. About a score of players, divided into two parties, faced each other at equal distances from the center of the field. The ball was then rolled in by the umpire, and the object of the game was to kick it between the goal posts. In more recent times a player may catch his opponent by the neck and thus hold him back until he can obtain the ball himself, but scalping was anciently employed as a means of disposing of an opponent.

The choogichoo yajik, or serpent dance, was practiced in early times, but after the introduction of missionaries appeared to be supressed.

Micmac Locations

The Micmac historical villages were as follows:

  • Antigonishe (?)
  • Beaubassin (mission)
  • Boat Harbor
  • Chignecto
  • Eskusone
  • Indian Village
  • Isle of St Johns
  • Kespoogwit
  • Kigicapigiak
  • Le Have
  • Maria
  • Minas
  • Miramichi
  • Nalkitgoniash
  • Nipigiguit
  • Pictou
  • Pohomoosh
  • Restigouche
  • Richibucto
  • Rocky Point
  • Shediac
  • Shubenacadie
  • Tabogimkik

Micmac Settlement at Bay d’Espoir

Bay d’Espoir is a long inlet of the sea, extending up country over a score of miles. The district is hilly, and is covered by a forest of rather small trees, spruce and birch, but further inland the hills are generally bare. There are comparatively few European residents in this bay. The Micmac settlement is on a reservation situated on the eastern side of the Conne arm of the bay. The Reservation, it appears, was laid off for the Micmacs about 1872, by Mr. Murray, Geological Surveyor of the Colony.

Consult Further:

  1. The Micmac Indians At Bay d’Espoir
    The Micmac Indians At Bay d'Espoir is a report made in 1908 by William MacGregor on the state of habitation by the Micmac Indians on their reservation at Bay d'Espoir.

Micmac Language

The northernmost and most divergent of the Eastern Algonquian languages is Micmac or Mi’kmag, spoken by 8,100 4 in the Canadian maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, eastern New Brunswick), the Gaspe of Quebec, Labrador, and now Boston. Some children are still learning the language. There is dialect diversity among communities and age groups, with the greatest differences setting off the Restigouche community in Quebec.

The language of the Micmac Indians is very remarkable. One would think it might be exceedingly barren, limited in inflection, and crude. But just the reverse is the fact. It is copious, flexible, and expressive. Its declension of Nouns, and conjugation of Verbs, are as regular as the Greek, and twenty times as copious. The full conjugation of one Micmac Verb, would fill quite a large volume! In its construction and idiom it differs widely from the English. This is why an Indian usually spoke such wretched English. He thinks in his own tongue, and speaks in ours; and follows the natural order of his own arrangement.

There are fewer elementary sounds in Micmac than in English. The have no r, and no f or v. Instead of r they say l, in such foreign words as they adopt. The name of an hour is in Micmac the same as that of an owl, (kookoogues) because when they first attempted to say hour, they had to say oul, and then they could think of the name of that nocturnal bird in their own tongue, more readily than they could recall a foreign term. 5

The Micmac Language was placed down on paper by Silas T. Rand in the 1870’s in an attempt to aid the Micmac people in learning how to read, and understand English. However, inversely it could be used by white people to learn the Micmac language.

Micmac Population Estimations

In 1611 Biard estimated the Micmac at 3,000 to 3,500. In 1760 they were reported at nearly 3,000, but had been lately much wasted by sickness. In 1766 they were again estimated at 3,500; in 1880 they were officially reported at 3,892, and in 1884 at 4,037. Of these, 2,197 were in Nova Scotia, 933 in New Brunswick, 615 in Quebec, and 292 on Prince Edward Island. In 1904, according to the Report of Canadian Indian Affairs, they numbered 3,861, of whom 579 were in Quebec province, 992 in New Brunswick, 1,998 in Nova Scotia, and 292 on Prince Edward island. The number in Newfoundland is not known.

Micmac Photo Gallery

Further Reading

  1. Rand, Silas Tertius. The Micmac Mission. Hantsport, N.S.? 1882.
  2. Speck, Frank Gouldsmith. Beothuk and Micmac. New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. 1922.
  3. Bailey, A.G. The Conflict of European and Eastern Algonkian Cultures, 1504-1700, 2nd ed, 1969.
  4. McGee, Harold Franklin, Jr., ed. The Native Peoples of Atlantic Canada, 1984.
  5. Trigger, B.G. ed, Handbook of North American Indians, vol 15: Northeast, 1978.
  6. Prins, Harald. The Mi’kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation and Cultural Survival, 1996.

Algonquian, Micmac,

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

Search Military Records - Fold3
  1. McGee, Harold Franklin, Jr. Micmac-Mi’kmaq, published online in The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2012.[]
  2. W. Jones.[]
  3. Rand, Micmac First Reading Book, 1870,[]
  4. SIL 1996[]
  5. Rand, Silas Tertius. A short statement of facts relating to the history, manners, customs, language, and literature of the Micmac tribe of Indians, in Nova-Scotia and P.E. Island: being the substance of two lectures delivered in Halifax, in November, 1819, at public meetings held for the purpose of instituting a mission to that tribe. 1850.[]

122 thoughts on “Micmac Tribe”

  1. Any Bathurst Gallaghers or Guitards who have traced back to Duplessis? I found that a relative, Olivier Duplessis, had a girl Marie Suzanne Duplessis, with a woman named Elenor Doucet. He then married a Lucille Lagace and had multiple children. For the life of me I can’t find anything on an Elenor Doucet, and I feel like I’m going bananas. My Nana on that side said there was some indigenous in our family, and all I can think is of course it’s this woman lol. Or not! Nana might have been wrong, too, but I’m so determined to find out about this Elenor (Eleanore?) Doucet (Doucett?)

  2. My family recently had some Native American genetic results show up on multiple relations’ DNA tests, which was a surprise. We are of partial French-Canadian descent and it seems likeliest from some of the surnames that the DNA link may be M’ikmaq, and perhaps 5-8 generations back from more than one ancestor.
    If anyone has any information regarding the following family surnames in connection with M’ikmaq ancestry, I would really appreciate it. The cluster of surnames (which seem to be inter-related) are:
    Thank you very much,

  3. My ggMother was Dinah Francis, who I believe was Micmac, at least in part. She had an illegitimate child (Howard Francis) in 1910 at Louisburg, NS and appears to have a link in Grand Bank, Newfoundland. I have looked through the standard genealogy search sites, but have come up with nothing on her other than the above. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks.

  4. My grandmother was a Trahan. I am told that the Trahans are micmac from Nova Scotia. I would really like to trace this back for my family, especially my mother and some other relatives who are rather elderly. Any information and assistance is greatly appreciated as to where to look.

    Thank you

    1. I am responding to the email regarding the Trahan family. My Ancestry tree leads me to Guillaume Trahan who came to Nova Scotia, Canada in the 1600’s. He was born in 1611 and was from Bonneuil, Department of Charente-Maritime, Poitou, France. He died in 1682 in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada.

      1. Thank you. Any additional info is greatly appreciated as far as where to look and who to contact in Nova Scotia. I am a total novice at this and what I lack in experience, is definitely made up for in enthusiasm.


  6. serena mcillwraith

    so were trying to find native part in our heritige.. it says from a passed on relative that his GG Grandfather was half native american.. and his parent a full native : and i have it confirmed in my dna so does tristan.. just small %s in us through generational losses…

    this letter is from eldon Gallagher -so his mother Amelia Gallaghers (our family tragedy of love and loss) .. he states his gg grandfather was Half Native so says her son in a letter passed on to me.. ive been trying and trying to piece it together and failing miserably .. but this is interesting..

    His GG Grandfathers were either William Gallagher (Very Irish but could have had a native parent i suppose) OR Charles Boone.. more than likely this side but one doesnt want to presume.. John gallagher from ireland, and his wife i have from ireland are not likely the side of full native GGG grandparent thats fully native.. right.. so leaving boone GG Grandfather.. his parents being Humprhy Boone or Eunice King .. looking into both of them further .. i know the boones are native to north america generation after generation going back to 1700s to James J Boone
    B:8 May 1780 Kingston, Washington, Rhode Island, United States i have thus far and i guess it could be from him but nothing saying so..and i will keep digging .. However I feel ive stumbled onto something that makes me go AHHHH just now:

    using all of the following in my deductions after these facts:

    from the census link i just found for NB in 1851 for the first time i found information on eunice King married boone and her family.. when eunice was married to boone she had two siblings in her parents household that i never knew about with very interisting names listed as native to this area for birth her siblings and her parents.. but names of her siblings are a humm.. her sister named MAHALA and brother ALBURN
    from her parents HOUSEHOLD http://automatedgenealogy.com/censusnb51/SplitView.jsp?id=6670

    Charles King and Mary Ann King both native to area: obviously we need more to go on but its an intersting turn, we need info on his parents i think or hers.. on on them :

    MAHALA: This name is usually said to mean “woman” in an unspecified Native American language, or sometimes a more fanciful meaning like “eyes of the sky” or “tender fawn.” Those translations come from 19th-century romance novels and are fictional; however, Mahala does have at least two distinct Native American sources. One is that “mahala” (pronounced mah-hah-lah) was a slang word for an Indian woman in 1800’s California. It came from a Mission Indian mispronunciation of the Spanish word “mujer” (which means woman.) As far as we know no Indian women have this name, but it is used in some place names in California, and “mahala mat” is another name for the plant also known as “squaw carpet.” This is probably where the idea that Mahala means “woman” came from. It is less derogatory than the word “squaw,” but is not really a native word. The second source of this name is the woman’s name Mahala (pronounced mah-hey-lah) or Mahaley, which was fairly common among the southeastern Indian tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, etc.) during the 1800’s. Unfortunately the origin of this name isn’t clear; the word “mahala” does not have any meaning in any Indian language of the southeast. It may have been one of many Indian variants on the name Mary, or possibly a variant of Michaela. Or it could have been a corrupted or shortened form of a longer Indian woman’s name or names. In the Tutelo and Saponi languages (two closely related southeastern Indian languages that are extinct today), the word for “woman” was “mahei,” so it’s possible that a name or set of names including the word “mahei” got corrupted into Mahala at some point in time. Or it’s also possible that the name might have had African origins (many of the southeastern Indian tribes, especially the Saponi, were known for taking in African-Americans.)

    we NEED more info in the end of this line or on these two people charles king and his wife mary ann cooke?

    It sounds like from the info I had to go on… that the pure Native American from the family was a woman she was a doctor she was the daughter of a chief and she was referred to as Mitchee and to me from the family line it looks like it would be Mary Ann Cooke??

  7. My great gram was adopted bye Whit people she was born at where the three Rivers Meet she was Micmac and adopted bye the white family Norris I know I am Micmac look it act it an know all her records were burned in Maine at town hall been looking for my family for ever allways I know my great gram ways adopted bye a white family of Norris hope to find my family my mic mac family I have slool for over 30 years now I am Micmac and need to find my family

    1. Tracey Vanknowe

      hello. wondering what town your info is from.my grandmother was adopted by white people too and her records were burned in a fire .thought it was the adoption place but town hall sounds plausible . her adopted name?

      1. Hello Tracey the town hall burned down I want to say in Vermont where the three rivers meet my great grams adopted name was Norris my great gram was full native but she was very young and don’t remember her native name as she was very young and never got a chance to meet her real family but the people who adopted her did a good job but her adopted name was Norris we’ll hope you find your don’t even know where to start cuz I am sure they never put adopted name in the book back then she would be about a hundred and forty now that’s a long time ago I am Ronald cabral

  8. I was told that my granddad, Robert Lee was the grandson of T K lee, a member of the Mic Mac. I also heard that many of the Lee’s were originally “Leigh ” can you fine the connection?

  9. I am trying to complete my tree and I have a gap at my great-grandfather. He was from Scotland. His son, my grandfather was born in Moncton, NS, to him, Thomas Spencer (I believe) and an unnamed Mikmaq woman. The birth certificate space was left blank. I remember, as a child, there was a photo of her, but that disappeared after I started asking questions. My grandfather would not share anything about his mother or any tribal affiliations. Anyone have any ideas how I should proceed? I’m 79, so time is a factor. lol.

    1. Go to ” Geni.com” which gives a lot of information about the mc’maq tribe and there original shaman, put your name in and your family and it will help you connect, to your relatives and there are professional people who will help. I had heard that there was Native American in my French ancestry. Before I knew it I found a many times great grandfather who was the Shaman he was called Chief Membertou.
      I hope this will be helpful

      1. Hi Tanya, I have worked on my ancestry tree for a couple of years now and I found this in my research:
        1686 Acadian Census
        Martin LeJeune 25, Jeanne his wife who is an Indian; children: Claude and a girl (ages not reported).

        Martin LeJeune b. 1861 m. Jeanne [Marie Jeanne Kagijonias]
        Claude LeJeune [b. ca. 1685]
        a girl LeJeune [Anne LeJeune dit Briard b. ca. 1686]

        I also found a Jean Roy 1648-1708 married Marie Aubois 1665-1760 (native American) from Cap Sable, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia.

      2. My great grandma was adopted buy a family named Norris she was full blooded Micmac but the Norris family that adopted her lost all records as the post office burned down she came from where the three Rivers meat in Maine and Vermont I am just trying to connect with my people it’s a shame was adopted bye white people and all recorded bunty family now don’t know where to lookany more but know we are Micmac so if any one know a Micmac women adopted bye the white family named Norris or Gould let me know that was my great gram

      3. Thank you for that info. I also received an email that gave me a name of the wife of Thomas Spencer. The marriage was in 1912 and that sounds about right. I will go to geni.com as soon as I can. Thanks again.

  10. My name is Lisa Williams from the New Orleans area. My mothers maiden name was Bienvenue and my grandmothers maiden name was Olive Lapeyrouse from Houma, La.., Her mothers maiden name was Daunis, and I believe also from Houma, La. I did trace this Daunis line, but kept coming up with French names. Now the Lapeyrouse line marries with Cajun/Acadian women. One being a Guidry/Guedry and her line goes all the way back to Nova Scotia. My research/paperwork states that a Paul Guedry married Anne Mius d’ Entremont, whose mother was Marie-a Micmac Indian. Now during the 1980’s my mother said grandma had Indian blood, I guess implying from the Houma Indian Nation.
    After reading the posts about people not having Native dna, I began to wonder about my own dna test I took with Ancestry.com 6 years ago. It didn’t pick up Native blood, nor FRENCH blood. I called them up and said “WHERE’S MY FRENCH, WHERE’S MY FRENCH!!!” She told me about the 50% from one parent and 50% from other parent. Next time I hear from them is 3 years ago. Something was added to my Fathers side. It mentioned also that I have related communities in south Louisiana. One month ago, I get another email from them. Finally the dna picks up the French-at 23%. But still no Native blood.
    Why are these tests not picking up Native blood? Is it just Ancestry.com? Do you have to spend $500 for the best dna test? Or maybe Native blood is being picked up and we are not being told about it. If someone from the Metis community or maybe Daniel Paul could contact me, I would appreciate it. In the meantime, I will contact the United Houma Indian Nation about my grandmothers maiden names. Thanks everyone for reading my post. Merci.

  11. I’ve been tracing my family for over 20 years and have finally found connections, I hope are correct. Maybe someone has the same line or where I may be able to find more information. It is myself April Crogan(1965-), my mother Bessie Burns(1930-), her mother Mae Young(1903-1991), her father Edward Young(1854-1940), his mother Sabine Roy(1823-?), her father Boniface Roy (1794-1873), his father Firmin Isaac Roy(1761-1839), his father Benoit Roy dit Boniface(1720-1818), his father Jean Francois Roy(1692-1770), his mother Marie “of the woods” Aubois (a Mi’kmaq)(1660-?)

    1. HI… Marie Aubois is my ggm also…her name is Marie Christine Aubois, AKA autbois, AKA Dubois, Mi’kmaq name Quiknacagan. She is metis. Her father is from France: his name is: Julien Hautbois b. 1641 in Louisfert, Nantes, Bretagne, France, d. 1719 in Cap Sable, Acadie (now in Maine, USA. He married Jeanne Aimee Mahis AKA Machis, AKA May, AKA MEY, AKA Mally in 1685. She was 22 He was 41. Her father’s name was Pierre Auneau https://francoamericangravy.blogspot.com/2011/01/first-nation-mother-marie-aubois.html. I can attest to that because it is gov’t approved. and she is my ggm also..

  12. Doing my partners family tree and have come across some documents that show her great grandfather, Theophile Létourneau (born 1843), is listed as Son of Mi’kmaq, his parents were Eùgene Létourneau (born 1814) and Marie-Adélaïde Beaudry (born 1815).
    If anyone could add any more information re the connection between the French Létourneau and the Mi’kmaq people, we would be very grateful,
    Thanking you
    Clive and Susan
    We can be contacted on email address

  13. The Mikmaq connection to LeJune has been proven by Haplogroup testing to be false. The LeJunes are European, not N.A. They have been removed from most geneology sites as Mikmaq.

  14. Mi’Kmaq people didn’t have princesses. The culture is not structured that way.
    Mi’Kmaq…possible, Mi’Kmaq princess, not possible.

  15. Jason Bellanceau

    Jason Bellanceau, I am seeking information on my grandfather Francis J Bellanceau sr. He was on tribal counsil of arroostik SP? band of micmac till his death in feb of 1996. His funeral was tribal but when tribe was fed recognised he was removed from band role due to lack of proof of geneology . He was born Jan 7 1918 in St. Paul in a church. have no birth cert WHere do I go from here to find out bout my heritage

    1. I am looking for information on one of my relatives Marie Mi ‘kmaq Indian norm 1660 and married Phillip Savage 1678 in New Brunswick

  16. Marguerite-Louise Membertou, Mi’kmaq is my 8th Grandmother.Her daughter was Marie Anne D’Aprendestguy. Her father was Henricus Membertou Sachem Micmac Indian Chief and her grandfather was Chief Henri Membertou. Does anyone have information on any of them?

    1. I was looking in the New Brunswick archives, and I found a Thomas Spencer who married a Theora Tucker in Moncton NB on September 25, 1912. Hopefully that helps.

  17. Michelle Fournier

    My mother’s father was Mathias D’aigle. He was born in Levec, Quebec. My mom said that her father’s family lived in Acada, now Nova Scotia. My uncle, Albert D’aigle, showed me a picture of Mathias D’aigle with long braids, jet black hair, one of those indian cream-like suits they wore with a skinny tie. To this day, I cannot find that picture and would love to have a copy sent to me via email as well as more history of his father, etc.


    1. Hi, we may be related. I have D’’Aigle in my line from that region as well. I have an old family tree that also lists a great grandmother named Anne Hebert and that her grandmother was full blooded Mi’Maq. I’m trying to research my Mi’maq ancestry but it’s really difficult to find much.

    2. Hello Michelle,
      My name is Rhondi Daigle aka D’Aigle my Father is Leonard Daigle and His Father was Alfred Daigle Married to Gertrude Legace other spelling Legasy. Gertrudes was born in Bathurst new Brunswick glouster county her parents were: Father Peter Lagace and Mother Rose Guitar.

      Alfred D’aigle’s father was born in in Richibucto county of Kent which was a micmac reserve I know my grandmother Gertrude was First Nations my grandfather Alfred D aigle as well I am 23 and me if you would like to chat under Rhondi Daigle Leonard Daigle also (my father) I respond to both of our accounts. I would like any and all information you have on the Daigle line. I was adopted by my maternal grandmother as a child and have very little information on my father’s side the D’aigle’s. Any and all information would be very much appreciated! Thank you Warmest Regards, Rhondi Daigle

  18. my fathers grandmother was vaelda langlois. She was a full blood indian of the micmacs. unfortunately his sister burned and through away everything once his mother died so i have no proof. he had a picture of her in full indian gear. im trying to trace back to get recognized in to the tribe. only thing i have is death certificates at this point in time, but doing more research. She was born in st paul canada nov 21, 1874.

    1. Julie, re Vaelda Langlois — I’d be interested to know if your research shows connection to Langlois in Quebec or that area, as I think that may possibly be my own distant connection. My great-great grandmother was a Mary Jane Trombley and her mother was a Langlois.

      My DNA test shows that I am a tiny bit native American, and going by a few things my grandmother said to me (way back in 1965), as well as some connections, I think my ancestry is likely Mi’k Maq.

  19. Hi! We are coming to New Brunswick on an ancestry trip for my mom. She has always been told by her aunt that they are part of the MIC MAC tribe in New Brunswick and Maine, Do you have a headquarters or office we can come to for research? We are having a heck of a time finding information.

    1. Hello t.here are mic,maq inRexton NB place Indian Island and a big reserve at Elsipogtog or Big Cove St Mary reserve in FrederictonNB

  20. I am a descendant of Germain Doucet whose mother was Mi’kmaq. I’ve the family genealogy and dna. Is it possible to locate someone in the Mi’kmaq tribe in Nova Scotia that will verify genealogy?
    Thank you

    1. Hi – Just came across this website. My husband is related to Germain Doucet Sieurde la Verdure (1595 {France} – Aug 1654 {Nova Scotia, CA}) (10th Great Grandfather & Grandmother) who was married to Mi’kmaq (1600 {Indian Village} – 1679 {Nova Scotia, CA}) Date of Marriage – 1620.
      Was wondering if there is any further information of Mi’kmaq or where I might be able to look.

  21. I’ve been working on family tree for about 40 years now. My grandmother who only spoke French told us we had Indian heritage but it was difficult to communicate with her being she only spoke French. I found out that we are related to the Micmac/Mikmaq Indians. My question is how can I find out if there are anyone living who is also related to the same Indian ancestors, a possible distant relative, some one in the tribe itself, I should add. Any information will be appreciated. Thanks Bryan Benoit

  22. Hello, I am trying to find out the name of my 7x grandmother who I believe is Mi’Maq. She was married to Pierre LeJeune on or around 1636 and gave birth to Edimee and Catherine LeJeune. I would appreciate any information or avenues of research to pursue. Thank you

    1. Select a profile image for Jeanne Marie Kagigoniac.
      Jeanne Marie Kagigoniac
      Birth 1600 • Micmac Nation Fort Lomeron, Cap De Sable, New Brunswick, Canada
      Death 1679 • Port Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

      1. Hi, I am also from Edmee lejeune line! father is Actaudin membertou. was looking on who to talk to in nova scotia or anyone who knows any avenues to take.

      2. I am a descendant of Henri Membertou chief of Mi’kmaq and Pierre LeJeune and daughter Marie D’Edmee Aimee Micmac Sauvagesse Lejeune.

      3. I’m also descendent of Pierre Lejune. I appreciate the information of my ancestor Jeanne Marie Kagigoniac. I would like to link her to my wikitree, would this be possible. I am in the process of creating my page on wikitree. Julie, murlhalsey@sbcglobal.net

      4. I also think my family was descended from Membertu. Claude Guedry was an ancestor and I think his wife was Keshousa Morning Star Whuitay – daughter of Henri Membertu.

    2. Hi i have Pierre Lejeune in family history born 1625 died 1661,father Pierre Lejeune born 1656 died 1704 cant find children as there not added if i come across any more info ill let you know as i have to go through paper work

      1. Pierre Lejeune 1575-1625 married to Collineau of Montaguerre 1575-1325 son Pierre Lejeune 1595-1636 married to MicMac woman born 1600. Her father is Henri Membertou Chief of Micmac 1507-1611 spouse unknown.

        Catherine Briard Lejeune 1621-1672 daughter of Pierre jr and MicMac woman. Catherine married Francois Savoie and their daughter Marie Francoise Savoie 1653-1711 married to Jean Corporon 1645-1712 from there , names coming up through marriage are : Hebert , Jeansonne ,Bastarche and Girouard………..Most of your last names here show a relation to me on Ancestry.com in addition to the names on this webpage , Benoit , Comeau etc…………..LITTLECHUTESP@GMAIL.COM

      2. Hello all. My father’s family came from Quebec (we believe) The last name is Boutillier. His mother told the story of an Indian princess marrying a French man … I know it was just a story but I would love to know more about his ancestors. His great grandfather was Lewis or Louis. 2x great grandfather was Israel. Thank you.

    3. My husband’s family also has that lineage with Edimee LeJeune born around 1622 who married Francois Gauterot. This is new information and any insight as to history and other family would be welcome.

  23. Dorothy markham

    My great grandfather always told my mother that he was mi’ kmaq but he passed away before she ever found out how. All she knows was him and his brother both came to America at the age of 13 or younger on their own because their parents died. Every where I turn it says no records of my great grandfather curry Allen Lohnes in Nova Scotia but one place says he was born in South Dakota and that’s it. Now, I have read that his brother max e. Lohnes was born in Nova Scotia . Any idea on anything would be wonderful I just want to learn more about my family and I keep hitting dead ends.

  24. Hi my great great grand mother on my fathers side and my great great grand mother on my mothers side were micmac i have my band card and was wondering if i could get status ? im not looking for anything free just asking,my uncle tried but was refused that was before 1986,thank you.

  25. I wonder if some Anglo families were “adopted”, not as members of Micmac families necessarily, but as members of the Micmac community. Or perhaps they were listed as Micmac because they lived in eastern New Brunswick within the area where the Sigenigteoag division of the Micmac lived. It is interesting that some of the Anglos had names like LeBlanc, which of course means “white”. Could they possibly have been given that name by the ribe? One of my ancestors listed as Micmac was named Caroline Albina Simmons, and “Albina” of course also means white.

    1. I know that the french intermarried with the mi’kmaq’s and Lejeune was one, he is my ggf. I am not able to find Caroline, if you would give me more information I can see what is out there.

  26. I just found out I am descendant on my mothers side 6 generations back to Mary muise, daughter to Philip . I am not sure if the were mic mac but this is interesting to me? I think that makes me about 2% and Acadian French. There are not many records from dads mom? I certainly have never identified with any native cultures other than Acadian but have great respect for all peoples, except maybe the monarchy for some reason. Lol. If anyone knows of these Moises I would be happy to learn of them. Thanks

  27. I am looking for my family too. My father always told me we were of Canadian decent. He thought Algonquian, but my nephew has found connections to the Micmac. The names he told me on the phone are Grace whose mother was Marie and father was a chief. Another name he has found that connects is Granger. It seems like it would be 14 generations back from me. Any informaton would be thrilling.

    1. I was searching my family tree with the Melanson name. It seems that a Pierre Melançon married a Marie Granger. Her father was Laurent Granger 1688-1751. Her grandfather, also named Laurent Granger 1637-1739 was born in England but died in Port Royal, Annapolis Co. NS Canada. Marie Granger’s great-grandfather was named John William Granger 1576-1643 and lived and died in England. Ancestry.ca says he married Grace Membertou and had children with her.

      1. Im trying to figure out what ancestral nation the surname Granger belongs to. I’m glad to see your information , thanks for that.

  28. I had my Ancestry DNA test done and it does not show Native heritage. We have our Grandmother’s Family Tree from when her ancestors came to Louisiana. She was a LeJeune with her ancestry to Pierre LeJeune married to Marie Thibodeau. I’ve gone a little farther on Ancestry. I am confused that I have no Native DNA and yet I’ve read that Pierre LeJeune was part of the Micmac tribe. Could my DNA results be incorrect? Thanks for your help. My email address is nurentj@wildblue.net

      1. One Pierre LeJeune was 1656 – 1704, another was 1595 – 1636 and another 1625 – 1661. Those were the ones in Nova Scotia. all of the same family.

    1. Hi Judith:

      I also have ancestors (surnames of great-grandparents Simmons, Briggs. Perley, and a couple of others) listed in Canadian and New Brunswick records as native or indigeneous, and also were told by my mom, aunts, uncles ,that we had Micmac ancestry. But nothing showed up in my DNA test at all. One of my mother’s sisters even looked very Native American.


    2. My research in our family tree shows that I am a direct descendant of Henri one of the Micmac chiefs. I am also
      related to Lejeune and Dupuis.

    3. Hi Judith I recently did my dna on ancestry,it was quite accurate,but I did find out from my tree recently Micmac descendants,so I was curious nothing came up on ancestry but I suppose it’s too far back,so I heard about gedmatch.com where you can download your raw dna from ancestry and to my surprise I did have small amounts of Native American you might want to give it a try!

  29. Allison Moon Raven Mitchell

    I come from a line of Native Nova Scotian. The line of Clarence Joseph Neiquin. We were solaced in 1803 with the United Houma Nation Choctaw, after being forced out by Irish Immigrants. I’m registered to my Choctaw roots but long deeply to find my true place. Allykota14@gmail.com

  30. While tracing my family tree and having dna testing done we discovered my family has native heritage. But we have been having a hard time find out any information in regards to our my mothers side of the family which is where we believe the line is from. Any thoughts on how to find out more information would be appreciated.

  31. Hi- I have recently been tracing the roots to my adoption. I have found my birth mother and she has only disclosed via the social worker that my birth father was of “Canadian First Nations origin”. As I was brought up in the UK, I did not know what this meant but the Social worker informed me that it probably meant Mi’kmaq based on her locality at the time around my conception / birth. Her name was Edna Biseau and she was from Miscou…. although I was actually born in Montreal in 1969. If there is anyone out there who has any knowledge of this or knows someone who knows etc, please please do get in touch.

    1. Trish, there are many Biseau (Bizeau, Bezeau) on Miscou Island it should be easy to find some info. Miscou Island site online and possibly thru Facebook afterwards.

    2. Hi Trish, you said you found your birth mother, but have you met her? And if its your birth father your looking for, I may know someone who has that information.

      1. Hello. Thanks for your message.
        I have not met my birth mother. I have sent her a letter via the Social Worker from my case file, but my birth mother did not want to initiate contact. She acknowledged my existence and validity of who I was, but does not want to admit to my existence ( although I believe via her cousin that I am already known about?!) other family. She confirmed my birth name, her name and that my birth father was of indigenous roots……
        That is all she is prepared to admit to……
        I would love to know more and maybe find a name / face…..

  32. I was told as a child i was part native by my dad well last night when visiting my sister she had all family history well my great grand mother was native married my great grand father who was french im from Cape Breton born there as well as all my family traced family back to the 1700 ,found out also my brother got his status card last year so my sister and i will do the same,im so proud to finally know the truth,and for you out there looking dont give up there are many places to find info,good luck.

  33. iwas told that my4 time great grandmother was a mic mac indian princess could you telli have been unable to get any information

  34. Hello,
    My name is Yolanda Gagnon and my husband name is Brenley Gagnon. He is the Great-Great grandson of Adele Bouchard. Adele was born in Port Au Saumon in 1844.
    Her father name is Joseph Eliphe Bouchard. We were told by his cousin that they’re part of the Micmac Tribe. My question is how do I find out for sure..

  35. It appears that my great great grandfather was adopted off the reservation in Richabuchto, New Brunswick when he was 7 as he does not appear in a census until then. Is there a university in Montreal that has copies of these records as the family records burned in a wooden church many years ago. We look so MicMac and have just recently sent our great aunt’s DNA in for testing.

    1. Were you able to find the answer to your question? My family research has run into a similar, if not the same, problem.

  36. As with many of the others, I have been told by my grandfather (deceased) of an “Native American” ancestry.
    I did genetic testing on 23&Me and it came up as my being 3% Native American.
    After searching a bit, it would appear that the likeliest native Nation would be the Mi’kmaq (Mi’gmaq, Micmac, L’nu, Mi’kmaw or Mi’gmaw).
    My family name is LeBlanc and they came from Arichat, Nova Scotia. Our original resident was Daniel LeBlanc – born 1626 in Martaize, France. He was married to Francoise (Gaudet) Mercier in 1650. Female names in the line include: Bourgeois, Thebeau, Blanchard, Boudrot, Martel, Landry and Sampson… Obviously the Native connection could also come from one of these families as well.
    After searching a bit, it would appear that the likeliest native Nation would be the Mi’kmaq (Mi’gmaq, Micmac, L’nu, Mi’kmaw or Mi’gmaw).
    If anyone has any info on the LeBlanc family and this nation, I would love to learn more!

    1. Hi I am looking for my native anerican connection as well. We are decendants of Angelique LeBanc in NS. I am told that there was someone who married a squaw and then migrated? Just begining my seach. Wondering if you came up with something. Lineage follows LeBlanc, to Gerrior

    2. I also have been searching for the Leblanc’s Native American. She would be my great grandmother and I also have Samson’s in the family as well. I am 3% as well and my mother has more. My great grandmother I believe is from New Brunswick and then moved to Cape Breton after getting married.

    3. My cousin Robert LeBlanc has been doing a study for years. Look up danielleblanc.lglackin.com there is info on Daniel Leblanc. I think it is the same one. Good luck.

    4. hello C Newbrand,

      in case u didn’t find anything out:
      here in southwest NS where Acadians are of unproven aboriginal blood because they were ashamed of themselves, we have https://www.usainteanne.ca/en/centre-acadien. drag n drop this french link n it’ll open up in English. i forget if i paid $20 or $25 in 2004 2 get my geneology multipage writeup. rumor has it that the Leblanc n the Saulnier are the most métis of the Acadian names, so, you’ll get something there for sure

  37. Lee Paul Richard


    My Father is Franklin Chadwick Richard and I have traced his roots all the way back to Ricihibuctou Village and Port Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada. I have information on a Micmac woman by the name of Marie (Marie Anne (Kagijonais (Mi’kmaq)) Membertou) who was born in 1616 (1613 in France) and was married to Louis Robichaud (Robichaux) in 1635 in France. They had a son Etienne who was born in 1639 in France. Marie died in 1680 (1679) in Port Royal, Acadia, Nova Scotia.

    I would like to know who Marie was and to verify if she was indeed born in France. It is also believed that she had a son Charles who was born in 1635 in Port Royal. I must assume that she was married in France (1635) returned to Nova Scotia (Port Royal) where she gave birth to Charles. She then returned to France at some point and gave birth to Etienne in 1639.

    Thank you very much!

    Lee Richard
    Mililani, HI

    1. Hello Lee. Did you read Patti Jo Weddle’s email below? I believe she is talking about the same woman, Marie Kajonais Memberou

      1. Aloha Karen

        Thank you very much! I will look into the info provided by Patti Jo

        Aloha & Every Blessing!

    2. Hi Richard, the woman you are referring to is relative to me as well and was wond3ring if you had found any further information?

  38. I am currently 63 years old. I was told since youth that we were part Micmac but have been unable to find the link. My grandfather was James Winslow Cray and he was married to know his cousin Eunice Irene Cray. I know the family came from Canada but that is all I could find. Everyone that knew anything has passed but I have heard that we were very light skinned and were able to pass as white. Natives were treated like scum so having native blood was hidden. Please help if you can. We had been listed and had received our recognition back when the Presque Isle band was getting numbers up to get Federal recognition but then asked to return our letters which I have refused to do. Please give any help you can. I have been proud of my native blood since I was a child and want to be recognized as such before I die.

    1. Stephen, I am in the same boat.
      I have grown up with the idea my fathers family had micmac blood. I was born in NS and only have one living aunt that denies this. Over the years i have tried to research my self with no luck. I can trace my fathers family back to George White and the mid 1700’s but it only lists them as farmers. I have a picture of my great grandmother (Mahala Jane White) and she looks native to me. I have always been drawn to the native culture and never knew why and would be very proud to be part of such a rich culture.

      1. Hi Krista. Research your last name. The LeBlanc line later changed their last name to White. Perhaps you are a LeBlanc, like myself, who migrated from NS to elsewhere (primarily NB and Quebec). Good luck.

      2. Krista,
        My grandmother is from a long line of Leblanc / White and Benoit ancestry. I too have always been drawn to Indigenous culture and traditions. Many LeBlanc came from Sandy Point NFLD and moved west and back east through the years. I am very proud to be Mi’kmaw although far in the line of generations.

      3. Kathleen McGillvray

        Would George White be any relation to Loney White? She is my great-grandmother and rumored to be a MicMac!

      4. Some Acadians chose to englishize their names when they went down to the States side. White would be Leblanc Le Blanc, I would need a name of someone who’s parents were born in Canada… go to nosorigines.qc.ca and you will find Leblanc.. I am of the Leblanc line. http://www.danielleblanc.lglackin.com
        explains his descent.. He married a Mi’kmaq lady, probably a daughter of the Chief Membertou

  39. Yesterday at a funeral, a cousin told us that its thought our Farquhar family had Mi’kmaq relations. Our Farquhars hail originally from Aberdeen & Edinburgh in Scotland and its though a cousin or ancestor emigrated and married into this tribe. How do we confirm this? She had a photo of Mann Und Frau der Micmac Neuschottland (the photo above) and says its thought they are our relations. People who have seen it think this couple resemble our family.

  40. My great grandfather married a squaw out of Nova Scotia. My grandfather was Joseph duguay Xander married Vincenza Cina… that’s as far as I have been able to go! Help n what would be my percentage of Micmac?

  41. I have been told all my life (born in 1946), that I have ancestors that were Mic Mac. My Great Great Grandmother’s name was Zeruah Anne Hurd. The only connection I have found is that she was born in Pugwash, Nova Scotia. I have no knowledge of her mother’s maiden name or their family. I am compiling my family tree with Ancestry.com and seem to have come up against a stumbling block. I need some help. Any you can offer will be appreciated. My email address is idWyomingal7@gmail.com

    1. I am looking for information on Eleanor Cone (Born 1851 in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada – Died1925 in Hopedale, Massachusetts) ( Daughter of Walter and Mary Cone ) who married George Albert Marsh. The only other information that I have is that they were at Ft. Follly.

  42. I have traced my family line to Henri Membertou Sachem Chief of the Micmac Indians Born 1570 Micmac Nation Nova Scotia Canada Death Sept 18 1611 Port Royal Nova Scotia I would like to find out if anyone has more information about his parents and other family line that are related to him and Me and my family
    The line goes Me my father Donald F Platzer then Hazel Elizabeth Mitchell/Platzer then Frank A Mitchell born 1877 dec 1 Charles city Floyd Iowa death Jan 3 1948 Minneapolis Minnesota Then Joseph Diedinne St Michil born 1829 Quebec Canada death sept 1881 Minneapolis Minnesota then Pierre Peter Michel 1796 dec 8 Quebec Canada death Outagamie Wisc 1880 then Pierre Michel born abt 1774 feb 25 Quebec Canada death 1839 then Joseph Michel Jr born 1731 Port Royal Nova Scotia Canada death 1767 Quebec married to Anne Laure Lord/Michel born 1731 Port Royal Canada death 1810 Quebec Her father Charles Laure (Lord) born 1704 Port Royal Canada death 1776 Quebec Canada His mother Marie Marguerite Josephe Doucet born 1698 Port Royal Nova Scotia Canada death unknown Her husband Jacques Doucet birth 1671 death unknown his parents Marie Pellerin Doucet Birth 1678 Port royal Nova Scotia death 1727 Her husband Etienne Pellerin Birth 1646 Canada death 1722 Garrison graveyard Annapolid Nova Scotia Canada his wife jeani Savoie Pellerin Birth 1658 Port Royal death 1735 Port royal Acadia Nova Scotia Canada then her father Francois Savoie birth 1621 France death 1678 Port royal Nova Scotia Canada His mother Catherine Lejeune Savoie Birth 1633 Nova Scotia Canada death 1672 Port Royal Nova Scotia Canada his father Pierre I Lejeune dit Briard Birth 1595 France death Port Royal Nova Scotia Canada his mother Indian Micmac Woman Jeanie Marie Kagigoniac (Methis) Birth Micmac Nation Acadia county Nova scotia Canada Death 1679 Port Royal Nova scotia Canada Her Parents were Mikmaw Marie Membertou Micmac Birth 1582 Nation Micmac Canada death Micmac Settlement Area of current day Nova Scotia Canada and her husband Henri membertou Sachem chief of the Micmac Indians Born Micmac Nation Acadia Nova Scotia Canada Death sept 1611 Port royal Acadia Nova Scotia Canada
    This is the information that I have on the family line that I have traced which I think is correct If you can help me with the search for more family that would be really great you may contact me at pweddle59@gmail.com or pjwharley@yahoo.com
    Thank you and I look forward to hearing from anyone that is searching this family or that can help with more information on this family

    1. Lori Simms-Byrne

      Hi everyone. I’m sorry for your frustration but excited at the same time for your quest of your relatives. I am Mi’kmaq and know where my family is. May I suggest you simply write the band’s. Each one has a membership list. Example:. Membertou First Nation. Good luck in your search.

      1. Hello,
        My name is Craig LANDRY. I’ve seen in some genealogy that my Great great….
        Grandmother was full blood Micmac. I currently live in Texas but my parents are from south Louisiana. I am curious about this and would consider a DNA test to see for sure. I know hardly anything about this test. Any advice would be appreciated.

    2. Hello, my grandmother was born on sugarloaf mountain in Restigouche and wast old she was part Mic Mac but can’t seem to get the genealogy.. Her name was Rose Emma Le Blanc, My great Grandmother was Veronique Gignac. If anyone could help it would be very much appreciated

      1. Like Amanda I too am looking for this connection(my maternal line Emma is my grandmother and veronique is my great grand.) so any help we would appreciate it!
        I am also looking for my paternal mic mac line as well. Names Harriet Ann Parker/ Kathleen virginia Parker connection in Nova scotia , Bear River. I have some more names dating back to the 1750s I believe.

  43. I’m trying to confirm some info about an Elijah Henwood and Elizabeth Brown. I’m trying to trace back my Mi’kmaq heritage. I’m told they were living in Norton, Nova Scotia. Any info would be appreciated. My email is msdaniellemac@gmail.com

    I hail from Antigonish but live in BC now.

  44. My name is Lisa Whytock. My Grandmother’s maiden name was Mary Loretta Vickers. Her mother’s last name was Lejeune. She hailed from Sidney Mines and her daughter was Junemarie Doody. Mary Loretta goes back to Pierre and Francois Lejeune where one of them was one of my Distance Grandfathers. I believe Pierre possibly. Our family lived in the New Brunswick and Sidney Mines and 2 other place that I cannot remember at the moment. My mother had with her for all of my youth an old berry picking basket she said she received as a small child from an indian village as a gift before she moved to VAncouver BC. My grandmother never spoke about the family but my cousin who was a Vickers said we had Indian ancestry from Nova Scotia. I have been trying to find my family for a long time now. If someone can help, I would appreciate it very much. I can be reached via e-mail. lwhytock@yahoo.com

    1. My mother was a Vickers from Sydney Mines…I also believed we had aboriginal ancestry and that it came from Grandfather Vicker’s mother who was an Ash from Newfoundland – Seals’s Cove I believe….would love to also be able to confirm this

      1. Krista Cabral (Miller)

        Unless there is a Moncton in NS I dont know about…Moncton is in New Brunswick

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