Topic: Apache

Signals – Smoke Signals of the Apaches – Sign Language

The following information was obtained by Dr. W.J. Hoffman from the Apache chiefs under the title of Tinnean, (Apache I): The materials used in making smoke of sufficient density and color consist of pine or cedar boughs, leaves and grass, which can nearly always be obtained in the regions occupied by the Apaches of Northern New Mexico. These Indians state that they employ but three kinds of signals, each of which consists of columns of smoke, numbering from one to three or more. Alarm This signal is made by causing three or more columns of smoke to ascend, and signifies

Apache wickiup

Apache Wickiup

During the late 1800s, certain bands of the Apache Indians of Arizona and New Mexico were able to tie down large numbers of United States and Mexican soldiers while living in the most primitive of dwellings – the wickiup. What is particularly interesting about their huts is that its appearance was probably identical to the housing used by most Native Americans 5000 years ago. In fact, the indigenous people of New England were still living in very similar huts when the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower. One can not imagine how cold those huts were in the winter. Unlike more

Apache Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

One of the most numerous branches of Athabascan stock are the Apaches, a fierce, nomadic nation, roaming over the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, and Sonora and Chihuahua. Always a scourge and a terror to settlers, they have held in check for many years the civilization of the country covered by their depredations. In 1831 Gregg wrote of them: “They are the most extensive and powerful, and yet the most vagrant, of all the savage nations that inhabit the interior of Northern Mexico. They are supposed to number 15,000 souls, although they are subdivided into various petty bands and

Indian Tribes of the Southern Plains Region

The Regional Director represents the Southern Plains Region in dealing with other governmental entities and tribal entities. The Regional Director serves as the representative for the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs with the responsibility to work toward strengthening intergovernmental assistance to all the Federally-recognized tribes under the jurisdiction of the Southern Plains Regional Office. The Southern Plains Region has two (2) Deputy Regional Directors, who work directly under the Regional Director. Dan Deerinwater, Regional Director Southern Plains Regional Office Bureau of Indian Affairs WCD Office Complex P.O. Box 368 Anadarko, OK 73005 Anadarko Agency Bureau of Indian Affairs

Texas Lipan Apache, Troublesome Tribe

The Lipan Apaches of Texas, a very troublesome tribe, were crafty enough, when hard-pressed by their wild foes, the Comanches, to seek peace with the Spanish and a settled mission life. Neither the padres nor the soldiers put much faith in their sincerity. The Fathers were willing to experiment, however, and a mission was founded for the Apaches on the Guadalupe River. This action was approved as early as 1750 but was not carried out until 1756, and then the mission was located, not on the Guadalupe, but on the San Saba River. The Apaches were now friendly enough, but

Uncle Sam and his Unruly Wards

When Kearny was about to set out from Santa Fe for his march to California he appointed Charles Bent to act as Governor of New Mexico. By virtue of his office as Governor, Bent became also Superintendent of Indian Affairs. For many years he had lived in or near New Mexico, so he was well qualified to supply the Government at Washington with exact information concerning the various Indian tribes inhabiting the Territory. This he did in a condensed but illuminating report to William Medill, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. First, Bent mentions the Jicarilla Apaches, numbering five hundred souls. He

Victory with Dishonor

When General Nelson A. Miles relieved Crook, April 12, 1886, there were still at large thirty-six Chiricahua hostiles seventeen men, including Geronimo and Nachez, and nineteen women and children. In addition to this murderous band, led by Geronimo and Nachez, Mangus was still somewhere in the Sierra Madre with a party of eleven men, women, and children. 1October 18, 1886, Mangus, two other warriors, three women, and seven children were captured in the White Mountain by Captain Charles L. Cooper of the Fourth Cavalry, and sent to Florida. He had, however, cut himself off from all contact with the other

Soldiers, Citizens and Savages

Carleton had done his best to conquer and control the Apaches, but had failed after all. It is natural that an enlightened American who coolly reads today the events of the past should suppose that with the close of the Civil War our Government would have turned its attention seriously to the solution of the Apache problem in the Southwest. But it did not do this. There were pressing and clamorous postwar issues that absorbed the attention of populace and officers of government alike. New Mexico and Arizona were very remote; the white population scant; and knowledge of the condition

The Primitive Apache

The earliest Americans who came in contact with the Apache were able to study him in his original condition. As yet he was untouched by the ways of civilized man. He was strictly the creature of his environment; and, for her part, Nature had turned him out a perfect physical specimen. In appearance he was attractive rather than repulsive. The head, well formed and somewhat broad, was set firmly on a short, muscular neck. He had high cheekbones, well-formed nose, black eyes that blazed with fire and energy, strong jaws, and firm-closed lips-not thin, yet not too full. The hair,

Reaping the Whirlwind

For several years the Indian Bureau had been sowing the wind; now it was harvest time and it was to reap the whirlwind. In his annual reports Agent John P. Clum smugly implies that the transfers, one after another, of Indians from Camp Verde, Camp Apache, the Chiricahua Reservation, and Ojo Caliente, and their concentration on the San Carlos Reservation were successful and satisfactory. It was in reality far otherwise. In every instance the removal of the Indians was a breach of good faith on the part of the Government, was contrary to the best judgment of Army officers in

Origin and Distribution of Apache Indians

The author of this volume has no desire to put on a wise look or to ape the manner of erudite scholars. He prefers, rather, to come to grips at once with the subject that interests him–the Apache Indians. The fact is, no scholar has been able to trace satisfactorily the exact origins of this spectacular people or to say just when they made their appearance in the Southwest as a distinct nation. Concerning one simple fact all ethnologists agree: the Apache belongs to the Athapascan family, the most widely scattered of all North American Indian linguistic families. In remote

The Apache Bands

The local group was an ideal unit for any cooperative activity. So small that it could be instantly mobilized, and not too large to move rapidly and with perfect coordination, it constituted the nerve center for raiding and warfare. The closeness of families together permitted the maximum of social enjoyment, also; and while each family was economically independent of every other family, there were cooperative advantages that came to all from their proximity to each other. When the time came to lay in a supply of piñon nuts, or to gather and roast mescal, the women of half a dozen

Mangas Coloradas Attempted Escape

In the night West was aroused from sleep and informed that Mangas Coloradas had attempted to escape and had been shot dead by the guards. The accounts of the capture and execution of this famous Apache are confusing and contradictory. More than one soldier who was present at the time has left on record the assertion that the captive was tormented and enraged beyond endurance, and when forced to angry complaint, was shot. I give West’s own account of the event. He says that he investigated the death of Mangas Coloradas at once and found that he had made three

Howard Offers to make a Common Apache Reservation

“‘I came with the hope of making peace between you and the citizens, and of thus saving life and property.’” Cochise replied: “‘I am as much in favor of peace as anybody. I have not been out to do mischief for the past year. But I am poor; my horses are poor and few in number. I could have taken more on the Tucson road, but have not done it. I have twelve captains out in different directions who have been instructed to go and get their living.’” Howard then said: “‘I should like to make a common reservation on

The Apache Indian

The author of this volume has no desire to put on a wise look or to ape the manner of erudite scholars. He prefers, rather, to come to grips at once with the subject that interests him–the Apache Indians. The fact is, no scholar has been able to trace satisfactorily the exact origins of this spectacular people or to say just when they made their appearance in the Southwest as a distinct nation. Concerning one simple fact all ethnologists agree: the Apache belongs to the Athapascan family, the most widely scattered of all North American Indian linguistic families. In remote

Five Thousand Men against Thirty-Eight Chiricahua

During the march toward the border Miles himself was on the anxious seat. Much was expected of him. He had promised much. Yet for four months his army of five thousand men had been employed against these thirty-eight Chiricahuas. His troops had suffered serious fatalities and casualties, yet not a single renegade had been killed or captured. Now they were coming to surrender to him. Would they hold fast to their intention? And would they yield on terms that matched his promises to the public and that fulfilled the requirements laid upon him by the President and the commanding General

General Thomas C. Devin Assumed Command in Arizona

Early in 1868 General Thomas C. Devin assumed command in Arizona. He was an able and active officer and carried on vigorous and most difficult scouts into the very heart of the Apache territory south of the Mogollons, north of the Gila, and throughout the Salt River regions; but, in spite of his best efforts, he rarely found any Indians, though the troops came upon numerous deserted rancherías. He also broke new trails into hitherto almost inaccessible Apache haunts and made maps for the guidance of future expeditions. Sometime in 1868 General Devin broke up the temporary reservation at Fort