The Apache Indian

Apache wickiup
Photo of an Apache wickiup shortly after Geronimo surrendered
Photo by E.S, Curtis in 1892

The author of this volume has no desire to put on a wise look or to ape the manner of erudite scholars. He prefers, rather, to come to grips at once with the subject that interests him–the Apache Indians. The fact is, no scholar has been able to trace satisfactorily the exact origins of this spectacular people or to say just when they made their appearance in the Southwest as a distinct nation. Concerning one simple fact all ethnologists agree: the Apache belongs to the Athapascan family, the most widely scattered of all North American Indian linguistic families. In remote times it covered the greater part of the continent. Its various tribes inhabited the Arctic and the Pacific coasts and extended as far south as northern New Mexico and as far east as the Rio Grande.

Apache Bibliography

The following items were used as reference material for this manuscript:

  1. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1874.
  2. Annual Reports of the United States War Department, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871.
  3. Arizona Daily Star, April, May, October, 1882.
  4. Arizona Daily Star, June 19, 1910.
  5. Bancroft, Hubert H. A History of Arizona and New Mexico. San Francisco, 1989.
  6. Bancroft, Hubert H. History of Arizona and New Mexico. San Francisco, 1889.
  7. Bandelier, A. F. Final Report on Investigations in the Southwest. Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America, American Series III, 1890.
  8. Bartlett, John R. Personal Narrative, Vol I. New York, Appleton, 1854.
  9. Bartlett, John R. Personal Narrative, Vol. I. New York, Appleton, 1854.
  10. Benavides, Fray Alonso De, The Memorial of, tr. by Mrs. Emma Burbank Ayer .
  11. Bolton, Herbert E. Kino’s Historical Memoirs of Primaria Alta. Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark, 1919.
  12. Bourke, John G. “Apache Mythology.” In Journal of American Folklore, Vol. III, p. 209.
  13. Bourke, John G. “General Crook in the Indian Country.” In The Century Magazine, March, 1891.
  14. Bourke, John G. An Apache Campaign in the Sierra Madre. New York, 1886.
  15. Bourke, John G. Medicine Men of the Apache. Bureau of Ethnology Report.
  16. Bourke, John G. Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1887-1888.
  17. Bourke, John G. On the Border with Crook. New York, Scribner, 1896.
  18. Bourke, John G. The Medicine Men of the Apaches. Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1887-1888.
  19. Calhoun, James S. The Official Correspondence of James S. Calhoun. Collected and edited by Annie Heloïse Abel. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1915.
  20. Carter, William H. The Life of Lieutenant General Chaffee. Chicago, 1917.
  21. Castañeda, De Nagera Pedro. The Journey of Coronado, tr. by George Parker Winship . Chicago, Laidlaw.
  22. Chapman, C. E. The Founding of Spanish California. New York, Macmillan, 1916.
  23. Chronological List of Actions with Indians in Arizona and New Mexico, Jan. 1866 to Jan. 1891. A.G.O., War Department. Old Records Section.
  24. Clum, Woodworth. Apache Agent. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1936.
  25. Connell, Charles T. “The Apache Past and Present.” In Tucson Citizen, May 29, 1921.
  26. Coues, Elliott. The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike. New York, F. P. Harper, 1895.
  27. Cremony, John C. Life among the Apaches. San Francisco, 1868.
  28. Crook, George. Résumé of Operations against Apache Indians from 1892 to 1996. Washington, 1886.
  29. Cruse, Thomas. Unpublished Autobiography.
  30. Curtis, E. S. “Vanishing Indian Types–The Tribes of the Southwest.” In Scribner’s Magazine, May, 1906.
  31. Curtis, E. S. North American Indian, Vol. I. 1907.
  32. Davis, Britton. The Truth about Geronimo. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1929.
  33. DeLong, S. R. The History of Arizona. 1905.
  34. Dellenbaugh, F. S. The North Americans of Yesterday. New York, Putnam, 1901.
  35. Dunn, J. P. Massacre of the Mountains, A History of the Indian Wars of the Far West. New York, Harper, 1886.
  36. Elliott. Arizona History.
  37. Emory, W. H. Notes of a Military Reconnaissance. Executive Document No. 41. Washington, 1848.
  38. Farish, Thomas Edwin. History of Arizona, Vols. II, V and VIII. Phoenix, 1915.
  39. Gatewood, Charles B. The Surrender of Geronimo. Ed. by General Brigadier Edward S. Godfrey . 1929.
  40. Gay, Dorothy Frances. Apache Art. Master’s Thesis. University of Arizona Library.
  41. Goddard, P. E. Indians of the Southwest. American Museum of Natural History Handbook, Series No. 2. New York, 1921.
  42. Goddard, P. E. Various Apache Texts (including Creation Myths, etc.). American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers, Vol. VII and Vol. XXIV, Parts 1-4.
  43. Goddard, Pliny Earle. Indians of the Southwest. New York, 1921.
  44. Goddard, Pliny Earle. Myths and Tales from the San Carlos Apache. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXIV, Part I.
  45. Goddard, Pliny Earle. Myths and Tales from the White Mountain Apache. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXIV, Part II.
  46. Goodwin, Grenville. “Clans of the Western Apaches.” In New Mexico Historical Review, July, 1933.
  47. Gregg, Josiah. Commerce of the Prairies. New York, Langley, 1845.
  48. Hagedorn, Hermann. Leonard Wood, A Biography, Vol. I. New York, Harper, 1931.
  49. Hammond, George P. After the Civil War, Wanted–A Policy. Unpublished ms. supplied by Charles Morgan Wood.
  50. Hammond, George P. General Stoneman in Charge. Unpublished ms. supplied by Charles Morgan Wood.
  51. Hayes, Benjamin. Diary of a Journey Overland from Socorro to Warner’s Ranch. Unpublished manuscript. Berkeley, Bancroft Library, 1849.
  52. Hodge, F. W. “The Early Navajo and Apache.” In American Anthropologist, old series, July, 1895. Washington.
  53. Hodge, F. W. Handbook of the American Indian, Vol. I, p. 63.
  54. House of Representatives, Executive Documents, 42d Congress, 2d Session.
  55. House of Representatives, Executive Documents, I, Part 2, 41st Congress, 2d Session.
  56. House of Representatives, Miscellaneous Documents. Nos. 18 and 19, 38th Congress, 2d Session.
  57. Howard, O. O. “Account of His Mission to the Apaches and Navajos.” In Washington Daily Morning Chronicle, November 10, 1872.
  58. Howard, O. O. My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians. A. D. Worthington and Company, Hartford. 1907.
  59. Hrdlicka, Ales. “Notes on the San Carlos Apache.” In American Anthropologist, new series, 1905.
  60. Hrdlicka, Ales. Notes on the San Carlos Apaches, September, 1905, p. 480.
  61. Pacific Railroad Reports, Explorations, and Surveys, Vol. III. Washington, 1856. Whipple, etc., on Apaches.
  62. Hughes, John T. Reprint of Doniphan’s Expedition. Topeka, William E. Connelly, 1907.
  63. Hughes, Samuel. Scrapbook. Tucson, Pioneers Historical Society.
  64. Indian Affairs Report. House of Representatives, Executive Document No. 2, 35th Congress, 1st Session, Washington, 1857.
  65. Irwin, B. J. D. “The Apache Pass Fight.” In The Military Surgeon, October, 1933, Washington, D.C.
  66. Journals of the Fifth Legislative Assembly, Territory of Arizona. Tucson, 1869.
  67. Journals of the First Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona. Prescott, 1865.
  68. Journals of the Third Legislative Assembly, Territory of Arizona. Prescott, 1867.
  69. Lockwood, Frank C. Pioneer Days in Arizona. New York, Macmillan, 1932.
  70. Lockwood, Frank C. With Padre Kino on the Trail. University of Arizona Bulletin, Tucson.
  71. Lummis, Charles F. The Land of Poco Tiempo. New York, Scribner, 1897.
  72. Manje, Juan Mateo. Lux de Tierra Incognita.
  73. Miles, Nelson A. Porsonal Recollection. Chicago, Werner, 1896.
  74. Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representatives, 38th Congress, 2d Session. Washington, 1865.
  75. Opler, M. E. “A Summary of Jicarilla Apache Culture.” In American Anthropologist, new series, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2.
  76. Opler, M. E. “An Interpretation of Ambivalence of Two American Indian Tribes.” In The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. VII, No. 1.
  77. Opler, M. E. “The Concept of Supernatural Power among the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apaches.” In American Anthropologist. Vol. XXXVII, No. 1.
  78. Opler, M. E. An Analysis of Mescalero and Chiricahua Apache Social Organization in the Light of their Systems of Relationships. University of Chicago Library.
  79. Pattie, James O. The Personal Narrative of. Cincinnati, Timothy Flint, 1831.
  80. Pumpelly, Raphael. Across America and Asia. New York, Leypoldt and Holt, 1870.
  81. Reports, of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1883-1886.
  82. Reports, of the War Department, 1883-1886.
  83. Roberts, Helen H. Basketry of the San Carlos. Anthropological Papers of The American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XXXI, Part II.
  84. Russell, Don. One Hundred and Three Fight and Scrimmages, The Story of General Reuben F. Bernard. Washington, 1936.
  85. Russell, Don. One Hundred and Three Fights and Scrimmages. Washington, United States Cavalry Association, 1936.
  86. Schmeckebier, Laurence F. The Office of Indian Affairs. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1927.
  87. Senate Executive Document No. 117, 49th Congress, 2d Session.
  88. Senate Executive Document No. 2, 36th Congress, 1st Session.
  89. Senate Executive Document No. 83, 51st Congress, 1st Session.
  90. Smart, Charles. Notes on the Tonto Apaches. Smithsonian Report for 1867.
  91. Smith, Dama Margaret. Indian Tribes of the Southwest. Stanford University Press, 1933.
  92. The Overland Monthly. San Francisco, 1870.
  93. Thomas, Alfred B. Forgotten Frontiers. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.
  94. Twitchell, Ralph E. The Leading Facts of New Mexican History, Vol. II.
  95. War Department Reports, 1886-1887.
  96. War of the Rebellion. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of War, by Bvt. LieutenantColonel Robert N. Scott. Washington, 1880. Series I: Vols. I, IV, IX, XV, XXVI. Part 1, XXVI; Part 2, XXX; Part 1, XXXIV; Part 3, XLI, L; Part 1, L; Part 2.
  97. Wellman, Paul I. Death in the Desert. New York, Macmillan, 1935.
  98. White, Dr. John B., Surgeon in the U. S. Army and Physician to the Apache Indians under the Department of the Interior. A Complete Vocabulary of the Apache and the Tonto Indian Dialect of Arizona Territory. Bureau of American Ethnology. Manuscript Vault. (From photostat copy secured by Charles Morgan Wood, 1926.)
  99. Williamson, Al. Williamson interviewed by the author, June 10, 1934.
  100. Wilson, Benjamin D. Observations on Early Days in California and New Mexico. Unpublished Manuscript. Berkeley, Bancroft Library.
  101. Wood, Charles Morgan. Extracts from Records in the War Department. November, 1856, to February, 1861.


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