Faraon Apache Tribe

The Faraon Apache, named from early Spanish references to the “Apache hordes of Pharaoh,” were a tribe primarily located in the region between the Rio Grande and the Pecos in New Mexico. Historically, they appear to be the southern division of the Querecho encountered by Coronado in 1541, later identified as the Vaqueros by Benavides in 1630, and possibly part of the Llaneros in more recent times. Their relationship to other Apache tribes is unclear, though they likely had closer ties to the Mescaleros. The Faraon Apache were known for their frequent raids on Spanish and Pueblo settlements in the Rio Grande area and Chihuahua, with the Sandia mountains serving as a significant stronghold. Despite multiple Spanish expeditions and peace treaties, these agreements often failed to bring lasting peace. Noted divisions within the tribe include the Ancavistis, Jacomis, Orejones, Carlanes, and Cuampes, although some, like the Carlanes, were associated with the Jicarillas.

Faraon (‘Pharaoh’) Apache Indians. A tribe of Apache. From references in early Spanish writings to the “Apache hordes of Pharaoh,” it is assumed that the name of the Faraon Apache was thus derived. This tribe, no longer known by name, seems to have formed the south division of the Querecho of Coronado (1541), the Vaqueros of Benavides (1630) and other 17th century writers, and part at least of the Llaneros of more recent times.

Their principal range was that part of New Mexico lying between the Rio Grande and the Pecos, although their raids extended beyond this area. Nothing is known of their ethnic relations, but judging from their habitat, they were probably more closely related to the Mescaleros than to ally other of the Apache tribes, if indeed they were not a part of them.

They made numerous depredations against the Spanish and Pueblo settlements of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, as well as in Chihuahua, and for a time at least their principal rendezvous was the Sandia mountains in the former territory. Several expeditions were led against them by the Spanish authorities, and treaties of peace were made, but these did not prove to be binding.

According to Orozco y Berra 1 their divisions were Ancavistis, Jacomis, Orejones, Carlanes, and Cuampes, but of these the Carlanes at least belonged to the Jicarillas.

  1. Orozco y Berra, Geog., 59, 1864[]

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

4 thoughts on “Faraon Apache Tribe”

  1. delia campos bond

    i am 49% native american my grandfather is clemente campos born nov 23 1885 my great grandfather is pedro campos were either enrolled in your trie any help or suggestions would be helpful thank you

  2. an ancestor according to records on my ancestry.com page was Jose Manuel Gonzalez (apache Indian) from Sonora and to believed to be from the Faraones tribe dob 1735 – 1804 was a Volunteer on the De Anza Expedition of 1775 to alta California and one of the first Pobladores of San Jose de Guadalupe (San Jose) California have some info on that, but How can I find out if is true he was a Faraon and more info on the tribe Thank you for your Help

    1. Hi Julio,

      My name is Arturo Villarreal and I teach ethnic studies. I am currently writing a biography on Jose Manuel Gonzales. Please get in touch with me.


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