Jicarilla Apache Tribe

Jicarilla (Mexican Spanish: `little basket’). An Athapascan tribe, first so called by Spaniards because of their expertness in making vessels of basketry. They apparently formed a part of the Vaqueros of early Spanish chronicles, although, according to their creation legend, they have occupied from the earliest period the mountainous region of southeast Colorado and northern New Mexico, their range at various periods extending eastward to western Kansas and Oklahoma, and into northwest Texas. The Arkansas, Rio Grande, and Canadian Rivers figure in their genesis myth 1 , but their traditions seem to center about Taos and the heads of Arkansas River. They regard the kindred Mescaleros and also the Navaho as enemies, and, according to Mooney, their alliances and blood mixture have been with the Ute and Taos.

In language they are more closely related to the Mescaleros than to the Navaho or the Arizona Apache. The Jicarillas were first mentioned by this name early in the 18th century. Later, their different bands were designated Carlanes, Calchufines, Quartelejos, etc., after their habitat or chieftains.

Jicarillo Apache History

The Spaniards established a mission among there within a few leagues of Taos, North Alex., in 1733, which prospered for only a short time. They were regarded as a worthless people by both the Spanish settlers of New Mexico and their American successors, in raids for plunder the worst  Apache tribes, more treacherous and cruel and less brave and energetic warriors than the Ute, but equally fond of intoxicants.

While they sometimes planted on a small scale, they regarded theft as a natural means of support. The governor of New Mexico in 1853 induced 250 of the tribe to settle on Rio Puerco, but failure to ratify the treaty caused them to go on the warpath, maintaining hostility until their defeat by United States troops in 1854. Henceforward they were nominally at peace, although committing many petty thefts. In 1870 they resided on the Maxwell grant in northeast New Mexico, the sale of which necessitated their removal.

In 1872 and again in 1878 an attempt was made to move them south to Ft Stanton, but most of them were permitted to go to the Tierra Amarilla, on the northern confines of the territory on a reservation of 900 sq. m. set aside in 1874.

Their annuities being suspended in 1878 on account of their refusal to move southward in accordance with an act of Congress of that year, they resorted to thieving. In 1880 the act of 1878 was repealed, and a new reservation was set aside on the Rio Navajo, to which they were removed. Here they remained until 1883, when they were transferred to Ft Stanton, but in 1887 were again returned to the reservation set a side for them in the Tierra Amarilla region by Executive order of Feb. 11 of that year, where they have since resided. On this reservation 129,313.35 acres have been allotted to the Indians, and 280.44 acres reserved for mission, school, and agency purposes; the remainder, comprising 280,400 acres, is un-alotted. Their population in 1905 was 795. The present (1905) divisions of the Jicarilla, as recorded by Mooney 2 , are: Apatsiltlizhihi, Dachizhozhin, Golkahin, Ketsilind, and Saitinde.Citations:

  1. Mooney in Am. Anthrop., XI, 200, 1898[]
  2. JMS., B. A. E., 1897[]

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

6 thoughts on “Jicarilla Apache Tribe”

  1. Hello, I’m Jennifer. My grandmother was from Cordova, New Mexico, and her maiden name was Martinez. All I know is that she was Jicarilla Apache and was removed from the tribe at a young age.

  2. Hi, Katie, Angela and Donna
    Very interesting, I started out this comment with a lot of family history from New Mexico on here but then decided I didn’t want this much info out there. My family ancestry on my mother’s side in New Mexico goes back 4 century’s or so. My DNA results came back around 62% Iberian (Spanish) no surprise there, and some where between 20 and 24 % , Native american, I new right then it was my great grand mother Manuela Martinez, She was married to my great grand father (Trujillo).I never understood why in the picture we have of her, she didn’t look Spanish until that 20-24% Native American showed up in my DNA. If you google search the following exactly as is( Maria Manuela Trujillo (Martinez) (1843 – 1928) – Genealogy) I say exactly as is because there are others with very similar names.She should be the first one at the top, I tested this. On this link you will find my great grand mother with a picture and the names of her husband and children, if you click on the names it opens up more and more. Who knows maybe we are distant relatives. I have a better example of the same picture, it looks kind of distorted because it was taken at an angle with the glass still on, I removed the glass and took a picture straight on and have it on my phone.


  3. Hi there. My husband found out he is 49.7% native american Indian. His cousin has a birth certificate that his great-great uncle is Jicarilla Apache. Where can we find his name in the history?

  4. Hi I am Donna, I am new on my joy to finding my roots I have found that my ancestors were Jicarilla Apache and I am maiden name Martinez. I would love to connect with anyone seeking the same ancestors as I am in the New Mexico Colorado areas


  5. Angela arellano foster

    Hi y’all!! I’m Angela. My family was rumored to be of the Jicarilla Tribe of New Mexico. I have family members who are buried in the area. I’ve also found birth locations of family members in the area. I have found only one name on the indian Census rolls and am looking for more. I am determined to find our family line. I was raised in a Spanish household as I was not raised with my father but don’t get me confused…both parents were derived from this area.
    If You have any names..Arellano, Martinez, Gonsales (Gonzalez), Trujillo, Duran, Archuletta, Vigil, and Quintana. Thank you to anyone who replies or has any clue what I’m searching for. lol Thank you in advance for the assistance. Have a blessed day!!

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