Collection: Indians in the 1890 Census

Condition of the North Carolina Indians in 1890

The statistics and condition of the Indians given in the present bulletin, as provided in the census law of March 1, 1889, show the status of the Eastern Band of Cherokees of North Carolina, with incidental mention of the Eastern Cherokees. These Indians are taxed, have developed into good citizens of the United States, and vote in North Carolina. They are almost entirely self-supporting, receiving only a small allowance from the United States for educational purposes. A few mechanics are found among them, but their chief occupations are farming, lumbering, and day labor. They are a moral, law-abiding, and industrious

Soldiers of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians

The following are the surviving union soldiers of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina. The names are correct, but the spelling may differ from that on the muster roll. John Going Welch Thomas Otter James Otter John Brown Owkwataga Mason Ratley Steve Johnson John Taylor John Canott John Igotpa David Patridge James Walkingstick Thomas Canott all of Company D, Third regiment North Carolina mounted infantry; R. B. Smith, company and regiment unknown. The following are the surviving widows of union soldiers: Nancy Brown, widow of Benj. Brown; no children. Ah-nu-yo-hi Walker, widow of John Walker; 1 child

Gallery of Six Nation Images

A large collection of images from the manuscript, including maps. These images can also be found on various pages in context with the information on the page.

Annuities of the Six Nations Reservations

The Six Nations, with the exception of the St, Regis Indians, who receive no annuities from the United States, draw from the United States and from the state of New York annuities on the basis of past treaties, which secured this fixed income on account of lands sold from time to time, and rights surrendered. This payment is: The annuities themselves bring small returns in visible benefits. The payments by the United States, which are theoretically paid in the early autumn, for the census year, were not completed until February 1891, through delay of the appropriation by Congress. The various

General Remarks About the Six Nations in 1890

The state and federal courts, as the former have recognized in several instances, should recognize the 64 “Indian common law title” of occupants of reservation lands, where such lands have been improved. They should assure such titles, as well as sales, devises, and descent, through courts of surrogate or other competent tribunals, wherever local Indian officials refuse just recognition of such titles or delay a just administration when conflicts arise. All statutes which offer the Indian a premium for dishonest dealing should be repealed, and the Indian should be held to his contracts to the extent of his personal holdings.

The Shinnecock, Poosepatuck, And Montauk Indians, In New York

The report of the special committee appointed by the assembly of New York in 1888 to investigate the Indian problem of that state, made February 1, 1889, contained the following in relation to the Shinnecock, Poosepatuck, and Montauk Indians: The Shinnecock Reservation The Shinnecock Reservation is located on a neck of land running into Shinnecock Bay, near Southampton, on Long island. When the whites discovered the island 13 Indian tribes occupied the land, one of which was the Shinnecock, claiming the territory from Canoe Place to Easthampton, including Sag Harbor and the whole south shore of Peconic Bay. All the

Six Nations Names, Traditions, And Reminiscences

Indian nomenclature almost invariably has a distinct and suggestive meaning, especially in geographical locations, relations, and peculiarities. Only a few of those, which relate to the accompanying maps are supplied. The location of Bill Hill’s cabin, near the foot of the Onondaga reservation, was called Nan-ta-sa-sis, “going partly round a hill”. Tonawanda creek is named from Ta-na-wun-da, meaning “swift water”. Oil spring, on the Allegany map, was Te-car-nohs, “dropping oil”. The Allegany River was O-hee-yo, “the beautiful river”, and the Geneseo was Gen-nis-he-yo, “beautiful valley”. Buffalo was Do-sho-weh, “splitting the fork”, because near Black Rock (a rocky shore) the waters

Six Nations Health and Race Admixture

An examination of the annual reports of the United States agents for many years indicates the classes of diseases heretofore most common among the Six Nations. The reluctance of the Indians to employ physicians springs from want of means, want of easy access to physicians, and, in some measure, to the fact that from time immemorial they have relied much upon the use of medicinal roots and herbs in ordinary ailments. The women are practical nurses. This lack of professional treatment and the ignorance of the names of diseases have almost, entirely prevented an accurate specification of the causes of

Thomas Orphan Asylum

Education, Schools and Language on the Six Nations Reservations

The pagan element, as a general rule, is opposed to education. Exceptions are sometimes found. Families with small means, unwilling to make any effort to change their condition, claim that they need their children for homework. Even when they enter them at the beginning of the term, they do not enforce their attendance. The children, to a large extent, inherit careless, sluggish, indolent natures, and a lazy spirit. In some respects their capacities are above the average standard of the white people. They are more uniformly good penmen, good musicians, and excel in drawing, but the statements of the Indians

Industry and Home Life on the Reservations

Farming is the chief employment of the Six Nations Indians, and the products are typical of the varying soils of the different reservations. While more land is under cultivation than heretofore, the barns are mainly old and in had condition. This is largely true of similar buildings upon the adjoining farms of the white people, as farming has not of late netted an amount sufficient for repairs. The Indians, with no cash capital us a rule, have been compelled to lease their lands to the white people for cash rent or work them on shares. The death of influential men