The Indians in Indian Territory

The following tribes are the Indians residing in Indian Territory in 1890, who were not a part of the five civilized tribes of Indian Territory.

The various tribes of Quapaw agency, especially the Modocs, Peorias, and Ottawas, are the remnants of once formidable or large bands or tribes of Indians.

The Modocs are from Oregon and northern California. They are from Lutuamian stock, and came from Klamath; agency, Oregon. After the Modoc war in northern California in 1873, the United States in 1875 removed the Modocs from the Lava bed country to their present location in Indian Territory, the lands having been purchased for them from the Eastern Shawnees by treaty of June 23, 1874. They receive $4,000 per year from the United States in aid of their civilization.

The Senecas and Cayugas are Iroquoians, and part of the Senecas and Cayugas of the Six Nations of New York who went to Ohio in 1839 or 1840, and thence to Quapaw agency in 1867. (See Wisconsin and Now York.): The Cayugas and Senecas are so merged by marriage that they are now practically one tribe. These Indians are civilized. With the Senecas and Cayugas on their reservation are a number of members of various tribes. There are some Tuscarora, Oneida and St. Regis (Mohawks) Indians, and one or two Stockbridges on the Quapaw reservation.

The Quapaws, of Siouan or Dakota stock, were called by the Algonkins, Alkansas, or Arkansas. They pushed south and settled on the Ohio, bat were driven after a time by the Illinois down that river and to the region, now called Arkansas, the river and state being named after them; then to the west of the Mississippi River about 150 miles, and between the Arkansas River on the north and the Red River on the south. In 1810 they made a treaty with the United States, relinquishing their claim to the above lands, and, merging with the Caddoes, went to a reservation on the north of Red River. Here they were affected with miasma and became dissatisfied with the location. In 1820 another treaty was made with the United States. In 1833 they made another treaty with the United States, ratified in 1834, agreeing to move to a tract of land of 150 sections, on which they now live at Quapaw agency. There is one full-blood Quapaw, a woman, now (1890) living.

The Wyandottes are of Iroquoian stock, and originally roamed in Michigan and Ohio, They went to Kansas in 1832, and thence from Wyandotte county to Quapaw agency is 1867. The Wyandottes occupied, when discovered, the lands along the Great Miami, Mad, and Sciota Rivers, and the upper waters of the Maumee in Ohio and into Michigan. They were allies and friends of the Shawnees in their wars with the white people. The early frontier history of Indiana, Ohio, and western Pennsylvania is filled with accounts of the bravery and war deeds of the Wyandottes. They left Ohio for the west with the Shawnees. There is not one pure-blood Wyandotte new living at this agency.

The Ottawas (Algonkian), when first discovered by the French explorers, were residing on the northwest shore of the peninsula of Michigan. After the defeat of the Hurons in 1649 they fled before the Iroquois beyond the Mississippi, but were soon compelled to retrace their steps by the Dakotas, and finally settled at Mackinaw, where they joined the French in their contest for Canada. At its close, Pontiac, head chief of the Detroit Ottawas, organized a great conspiracy for the destruction of the English. During the Revolutionary war they were with the English, and also in the war of 1812. After the war of 1812 a long series of treaties followed, and in 1833 those in Michigan ceded their lands and removed south of the Missouri River. In 1836 those in Ohio sold their lands and removed to the Indian country, now Johnson County, Kansas, and prospered, becoming citizens of the United States in 1867. In 1870 they moved to a new reservation of 26,000 acres near the Shawnees at Quapaw agency, where they are now. A large number of Ottawas are now living on the shore of Lake Superior, so intermarried and confederated with the Chippewas that it is impossible to make any distinction between them, the two combined numbering about 5,500. They are civilized, being lumbermen, fishermen, and laborers, and many are on allotted lauds. In Canada there are about 1,000 more, all self supporting. There are but three full-blood Ottawas at the Quapaw agency. The Ohio Ottawas are known as the Blanchards Fork and Roche de Boeuf Ottawas.

The Peorias (Algonkian) once occupied lands now in the state of Illinois. In 1832, along with the Kaskaskias, Pianikishaws, and Weas, under treaty, they removed to lands near Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, which became known as Miami County, and in 1867, the remnants of all these tribes removed to their present location at this agency.

The Kaskaskias (Algonkian) were originally on lands in upper Illinois.

The Piankishaws were of Algonkian stock. They originally roamed over lands in the states of Illinois and Indiana. The tribe. is extinct, being merged with the Peorias, Kaskaskias, and Weas.

The Weas (Algonkian) were formerly located on land in the state of Indiana, The Weas as a tribe are extinct. They are confederated with the Peorias.

The Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, and Piankishaws are all civilized, and are known as the confederated tribes. There are now no pure bloods among them.

The Miamis are Algonkian. They came to the Quapaw agency from Johnson County, Kansas, in 1874-1875. They were located in Kansas after 1832, coming from Indiana, their old roaming ground, where a large number of them remained and were merged into the citizenship of that state. They are all civilized.

The Eastern Shawnees are Algonkian, coming to this agency in 1855 from Johnson County, Kansas. They went to Kansas in 1833. These Indians are civilized. There are several pure-blood Shawnees among them, and several from 90 to 100 years of age.

Tribe, Stock and Location of Indians in Indian Territory


Indian Territory,

Department of the Interior. Report on Indians Taxed and Indians not Taxed in the United States, Except Alaska at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1894.

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