Fresh Water Indians

The Fresh Water Tribe, also known as “Agna Dulce,” refers to the inhabitants of several towns in eastern Florida between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral. These towns included Anacape, Antonico, Maiaca, and several others, although not all native names have been preserved. This region’s history mirrors that of other Timucua provinces, with notable events including Ponce de Leon’s arrival in 1513 and the establishment of Spanish missions in the 17th century. The population saw a rapid decline following early conversions to Christianity. By 1602, 300 individuals from this district had been Christianized or were under instruction.

Fresh Water Tribe (“Agna Dulce”) Indians. A name applied to the people of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no native equivalent.

Fresh Water Connections

The same as Acuera (q. v.).

Fresh Water Location

In the coast district of eastern Florida between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral.

Fresh Water Villages

The following towns are given in this province extending from north to south, but not all of the native names have been preserved:

  • Anacape, said to have been 20 leagues south of St. Augustine.
  • Antonico, another possible name is Tunsa.
  • Equale, location uncertain.
  • Filache, location uncertain.
  • Maiaca, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River.
  • Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later lists).
  • San Julian, location uncertain.
  • San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed in 1600 by a flood.
  • Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by another as 24 leagues.

The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of the last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca, but there seems to have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early date which Fontaneda (1854) calls Mayajuaca or Mayjuaca. In addition to the preceding, a number of town names have been preserved which perhaps belong to places in this province. Some of them may be synonyms of the town names already given, especially of towns like Antonico and St. Julian, the native names of which are otherwise unknown. These include:

  • Caparaca, southwest of Nocoroco.
  • Ccicale, 3 leagues south of Nocoroco.
  • Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
  • Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
  • Disnica, probably south of St. Augustine, though not necessarily in the Fresh Water Province.
  • Elanogue, near Antonico.
  • Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
  • Mogote, in the region of Nocorooo.
  • Nocoroco, one day’s journey south of Matanzas Inlet and on a river called Nocoroco River, perhaps Halifax River.
  • Perqumaland, south of the last mentioned; possibly two towns, Perqul and Maland.
  • Pia, south of Nocoroco.
  • Qacoroy, 1½ leagues from Nocoroco.
  • Sabobche, south of Nocoroco.
  • Tomeo, apparently near or in the Fresh Water province.
  • Tuoura, apparently in the same province as the last mentioned.
  • Yaocay, near Antonioo.

Fresh Water Indian History

The history of this province differed little from that of the other Timucua provinces, tribes, or confederacies. Ponce de Leon made his landfall upon this coast in 1513. The French had few dealings with the people but undoubtedly met them. Fontaneda (1854) heard of the provinces of Maiaca and Mayajuaca, and later there were two Spanish missions in this territory, San Antonio de Anacape and San Salvador de Maiaca. These appear in the mission list of 1655 and in that of 1680 but from data given with the latter it is evident that Yamasee were then settled at Anacape. All of these Indians were converted rapidly early in the seventeenth century and the population declined with increasing celerity. The last body of Timucua were settled in this district and have left their name in that of Tomoka Creek. (See Utina Indians)

Fresh Water Population. There are no data on which to give a separate and full statement of the Timucua population in this district. In 1602, however, 200 Indians belonging to it had been Christianized and 100 more were under instruction. (See Acuera Indians)

Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953.

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