Cree Tribe

Cree Indians, Cree First Nation (contracted from Kristinaux, French form of Kenistenoag, given as one of their own names). An important Algonquian tribe of British America whose former habitat was in Manitoba and Assiniboin, between Red and Saskatchewan rivers. They ranged northeastward down Nelson river to the vicinity of Hudson Bay, and northwestward almost to Athabasca lake. When they first became known to the Jesuit missionaries a part of them resided in the region of James Bay, as it is stated as early as 1640 that “they dwell on the rivers of the north sea where Nipissing go to trade with them”; but the Jesuit Relations of 1661 and 1667 indicate a region farther to the northwest as the home of the larger part of the tribe. A portion of the Cree, as appears from the tradition given by Lacombe 1, inhabited for a time the region about Red river, intermingled with the Chippewa and Maskegon, but were attracted to the plains by the buffalo, the Cree like the Chippewa being essentially a forest people. Many bands of Cree were virtually nomads, their movements being governed largely by the food supply. The Cree are closely related, linguistically and of otherwise, to the Chippewa. Hayden regarded them as an offshoot of the latter, and the Maskegon another division of the same ethnic group.

Cree Tribe History

At some comparatively recent time the Assiniboin, a branch of the Sioux, in consequence of a quarrel, broke away from their brethren and sought alliance with the Cree. The latter received them cordially and granted them a home in their territory, thereby forming friendly relations that have continued to the present day. The united tribes attacked and drove southwestward the Siksika and allied tribes who formerly dwelt along the Saskatchewan. The enmity between these tribes and both the Siksika and the Sioux has ever since continued. After the Cree obtained firearms they made raids into the Athapascan country, even to the Rocky mountains. and as far north as Mackenzie river, but Churchill river was accounted the extreme north limit of their territory, and in their cessions of land to Canada they claimed nothing beyond this line. Mackenzie, speaking of the region of Churchill river, says the original people of this area, probably Slaves, were driven out by the Cree.

As the people of this tribe have been friendly from their first intercourse with both the English and the French, and until quite recently were left comparatively undisturbed in the enjoyment of their territory, there has been but little recorded in regard to their history. This consists almost wholly of their contests with neighboring tribes and their relations with the Hudson Bay Co. In 1786, according to Hind, these Indians, as well as those of surrounding tribes, were reduced to less than half their former numbers by smallpox. The same disease again swept off at least half the prairie tribes in 1838. They were thus reduced, according to Hind, to one-sixth or one-eighth of their former population. In more recent years, since game has become scarce, they have lived chiefly in scattered bands, depending largely on trade with the agents of the Hudson Bay Co. At present they are gathered chiefly in bands on various reserves in Manitoba, mostly with the Chippewa.

Their dispersion into bands subject to different conditions with regard to the supply and character of their food has resulted in varying physical characteristics; hence the varying descriptions given by explorers. Mackenzie, who describes the Cree comprehensively, says they are of moderate stature, well proportioned, and of great activity. Their complexion is copper-colored and their hair black, as is common among Indians. Their eyes are black, keen, and penetrating; their countenance open and agreeable. In regard to the women he says: “Of all the nations which I have seen on this continent, the Knisteneaux women are the most comely. Their figure is generally well proportioned, and the regularity of their features would be acknowledged by the inure civilized people of Europe. Their complexion has less of that dark tinge which is common to those savages who have less cleanly habits.” Umfreville, from whom Mackenzie appears to have copied in part what is here stated, says that they are more inclined to be lean of body than otherwise, a corpulent Indian being “a much greater curiosity than a sober one.” Clark 2 describes the Cree seen by him as wretchedly poor and mentally and physically inferior to the Plains Indians; and Harmon says that those of the tribe who inhabit the plains are fairer and more cleanly than the others.

Their hair was cut in various fashions, according to the tribal divisions, and by some left in its natural state. Henry says the young men shaved off the hair except a small spot on the crown of the head. Their dress consisted of tight leggings, reaching nearly to the hip, a strip of cloth or leather about 1 ft. wide and 5 ft. long passing between the legs and under a belt around the waist, the ends being allowed to hang down in front and behind; a vest or shirt reaching to the hips; sometimes a cap for the head made of a piece of fur or a small skin, and sometimes a robe thrown over the dress. These articles, with moccasins and mittens, constituted their apparel. The dress of the women consisted of the same materials, but the shirt extended to the knees, being fastened over the shoulders with cords and at the waist with a belt, and having a flap at the shoulders; the arms were covered to the wrist with detached sleeves.

Umfreville says that in trading, fraud, cunning, Indian finesse, and every concomitant vice was practiced by them from the boy of 12 years to the octogenarian, but where trade was not concerned they were scrupulously honest. Mackenzie says that they were naturally mild and affable, as well as just in their dealings among themselves and with strangers; that any deviation from these traits is to be attributed to the influence of the white traders. He also describes them as generous, hospitable, and exceedingly good natured except when under the influence of spirituous liquor. Chastity was not considered a virtue among them, though infidelity of a wife was sometimes severely punished. Polygamy was common; and when a man’s wife died it was considered his duty to marry her sister, if she had one. The arms and utensils used before trade articles were introduced by the whites were pots of stone, arrow-points, spearheads, hatchets, and other edged tools of flint, knives of buffalo rib, fishhooks made out of sturgeon hones, and awls from bones of the moose. The fibrous roots of the white pine were used as twine for sewing their bark canoes, and a kind of thread from a weed for making nets. Spoons and pans were fashioned front the horns of the moose (Hayden). They sometimes made fishhooks by inserting a piece of bone obliquely into a stick and sharpening the point. Their lines were either thongs fastened together or braided willow bark. Their skin tipis, like those of the northern Athapascan, were raised on poles set up in conical form, but were usually more commodious. They occasionally erect a larger structure of lattice work, covered with birch bark, in which 40 men or more can assemble for council, feasting, or religious rites.

The dead were usually buried in shallow graves, the body being covered with a pile of stones and earth to protect it from beasts of prey. The grave was lined with branches, some of the articles belonging to the deceased being placed in it, and in some sections a sort of canopy was erected over it. Where the deceased had distinguished himself in war his body was laid, according to Mackenzie, on a kind of scaffolding; but at a later date Hayden says they did not practice tree or scaffold burial. Tattooing was almost universal among the Cree before it was abandoned through the influence of the whites. The women were content with having a line or two drawn from the corners of the month toward the angles of the lower jaw; but some of the men covered their bodies with lines and figures. The Cree of the Woods are expert canoe men and the women lighten considerably their labors by the use of the canoe, especially where lakes and rivers abound. A double-head drum and a rattle are used in all religious ceremonies except those which take place in the sweat house. Their religious beliefs are generally similar to those of the Chippewa.

In 1776, before smallpox had greatly reduced them, the population of the Cree proper was estimated at about 15,000. Most of the estimates during the last century give them from 2,500 to 3,000. There are now about 10,000 in Manitoba (7,000 under agencies) and about 5,000 roving in Northwest Territory; total, 15,000.


Canada, Manitoba Canada,

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

Search Military Records - Fold3
  1. Lacombe, Dict. Lang. Cris[]
  2. Clark, Sign Language, 1885[]

12 thoughts on “Cree Tribe”

  1. I was told that I have some Cree Indian , My ancestors names that I heard of was Joe Beef LaBrie my great grandfather and his son Edward Labrie my great grandfather Is there any information on these men or if they were indeed Cree as we have always been told.

  2. I was told that my grandmother was from Canada her name daisy burk and I was told she was Choctaw any info would be appreciated

  3. Was told my grgrandma’s grandma said she walked from Canada as a young girl to Montana or Wyoming. My grgrandma’s father name Joseph Landor. He married widow Lavina Jane Shipley Williams Their two daughters went by their older half siblings’ surname Williams as did their mother. Reasons unknown. Grgrandma Nancy Elizabeth Landor (Williams) b.April 2, 1872, married widowed twice (Jeremiah Henry, John Payne) Survived by last husband Andrew Garrett in Sullivan Co. Mo. She passed away July 5 1943 Milan Mo. Her father called her Morning Light or Mourning Dove. Her Indian Grandma taught her healing skills. When widowed when Jerry Henry died she went to a reservation and John Payne followed and married her there. Location unknown. When Nancy Williams was young she and maybe her sister too Annabelle Florence (Belle) Williams (born 1869) was sent to an unknown Indian school. One teacher was a Jesuit priest who taught German. Am lucky to have this much info. Hope to verify some of this. Nancy said she was Cree. Of Nancy’s kids, My Grandma Norah Payne said her sis Margaret Marie Payne Leslie of Milan Mo looked full blood Indian.

    1. Judy my great grandfather was Louis Henry who was Nancy’s son with Jerry Henry. I’m trying to find out any info about her native ancestry. We were always told she was possibly Cherokee or Blackfoot? Would love to find out more info? Thank you

  4. Hi..My great great great great great grandfather was Alexander McGilvry..I was wondering how I could find out my lineage..I know my dad but only from what my mother told me…his name was Robert West…please advise..I am very interested as I now have children and would like them to know their heritage..thanks

    1. Hi hope this might help you my name is Chrissy I’m from New Zealand and hope this could help a little
      Alexander Campbell 1831 1842
      Son of colincampbell (metis (
      1787 -1853 AND Elizabeth Campbell born mcgillvray 1791 1862 Hudson bay
      Her parents John Williams mcgillvray
      And Indian woman mcgillvray
      I AM trying to find out more about her
      Hoping this helps some Ann’s maybe you might know a little about her
      Cheers chrissy

    2. Hi, I am trying to trace back to my Great great grandmother, family info is that she was a missionary from Scotland and married a Cree (something about a Chief Joseph) she then came back with a young daughter who was dark skinned with black hair, I know my great grandmother (the little girl) was also dark skinned and the dark complection and black hair carried on with my Grandmother my Mother and myself I would love to know more

  5. My father was born into a Cree family of 12 where the younger 6 were adopted into the US by different families. As I am trying to learn of my families history this is a problem. As that is all I know of his side. How do I find out how to trace back his information with just his current name? His name was completely changed as far as I know so I do not know his original name. I have a basic idea of where he was born but that is it. I don’t even have any of his adopted families information. (We are not in contact with each other so i can’t get any other information)

  6. Surae Smith Bernabe

    I was told my dads grandmother was the daughter of Cree Indian parents they came to Alabama escaping the Cree Indian War . I believed they were coming from the Carolina’s their last name was mihand or my hand ,unsure of the correct spelling. Is there anyway I can find more information.

  7. My paternal Grandmother (Thelma Lucille Hackenberg (née, Happel) told me that one of her great grandmothers married the chief of a Cree Indian tribe, and the surname was “Moutaw” (Mouton). Her mother’s name was Bessie Happel (neé Laird).

    I know this is a stretch, but can someone provide me any info on this lineage?

  8. My grandmothers name was “monin” and I was told she was Cree Indian from eastern Canada somewhere
    near White Lake around the lower Ontario Canada area. How do I find any info on this tribe?
    Any info or help would be greatly appreciated, please help me track my grandmothers origin, thank you Michael Zaenglein

    1. My cousin has french canadian ancestry . She has been told they have Cree in the mix. I have searched their ancestry back to France from Quebec . All the names are French that i can tell. There is one name i am not sure of. Andre Ponton.1777-1830. Would this name be recognized as a Cree name

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