In 1898, Congress passed a bill creating the only ‘Institution for Insane Indians’ in the United States. The Canton Indian Insane Asylum, South Dakota (sometimes called Hiawatha Insane Asylum) opened for the reception of patients in January, 1903.
Many of the inmates were not mentally ill. Native Americans risked being confined in the asylum for alcoholism, opposing government or business interests, or for being culturally misunderstood. A 1927 investigation conducted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs determined that a large number of patients showed no signs of mental illness. The asylum was closed in 1934. While open, more than 350 patients were detained there, in terrible conditions. At least 121 died.
Land was set aside for a cemetery, but the Indian Office decided that stone markers for graves would be an unwarranted expense. Today, the cemetery (121 names) is located in the middle of a golf course in Canton. No one knows the cause of death of the incarcerated or why they were even at the asylum. The National Park Service has recently added the cemetery to the National Register of Historic Places.
This page covers all patients interred in Canton Asylum during the year of 1911.
June 28, 1911 Patients
Canton Asylum, 1911 List of Patients
|Davis, Eliza L.||35||Female||Unknown|
|Gladstone, Lucy L.||32||Female||Married|
|Marshall, Joseph D.||32||Male||Single|
|Two Crows, James||18||Male||Single|
Source: Commission of Indian Affairs, Washington DC, 1910