Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

Yonkalla Tribe

Yonkalla Indians. The southernmost Kalapooian tribe, formerly living on Elk and Calapooya Creeks, tributaries of Umpqua River, Oregon. According to Gatschet there were two bands, called Chayankeld and Tsantokau by the Lakmiut, but it seems likely that the former name (Tch’ Ayanke-‘ld) is merely the native tribal name. The tribe is probably extinct.

Yahuskin Tribe

Yahuskin Indians. A Shoshonean band which prior to 1864 roved and hunted with the Walpapi about the shores of Goose, Silver, Warner, and Harney Lakes, Oregon, and temporarily in Surprise Valley and Klamath Marsh, where they gathered wokas for food. They came specially into notice in 1864, on Oct. 14 of which year they became …

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Walapai Tribe

Walapai Indians (Xawálapáya, ‘pine tree folk.’ – Harrington). A Yuman tribe originally living on middle Colorado River, above the Mohave tribe, from the great bend eastward, well into the interior chiefly by the chase and on roots and seeds. They are said to have been brave and enterprising, but physically inferior to the Mohave. The …

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Tuscarora War

The rapid encroachment of the whites on the lands of the Tuscarora and their Indian neighbors for a period of sixty years after the first settlements, although there was an air of peace and harmony between the two races, there were wrongs which dwarfed in comparison with the continued practice of kidnapping their young to …

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Tutchonekutchin Tribe

Tutchonekutchin Indians, Tutchonekutchin People, Tutchonekutchin First Nation (‘Crow people’) A Kutchin tribe on Yukon River from Deer River to Ft. Selkik, Yukon Territory, Canada.  They number about 1,100 and differ but little from their Kutchin neighbors below.

Tukkuthkutchin Tribe

Tukkuthkutchin Indians (‘squint-eyed people’) A Kutchin tribe at the head of Porcupine River, occupying the territory between the headwaters of Porcupine river and Ft. McPherson, in the northern Yukon Territory, Canada.  Their eyes are frequently small and oblique, hence their name.  Although barbarous they are more intelligent than other tribes. They are a commercial people, …

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Tatlitkutchin Tribe

Tatlitkutchin Indians (‘Peel river people’). A Kutchin tribe, closely allied to the Tukkuthkutchin, living on the east band of Peel river, British Columbia, between lat. 66º and 67º.  For a part of the season they hunt on the mountains, uniting sometimes with parties of the Tukkuthkutchin.  They confine their hunting to the caribou, as they …

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Tanoan Indians

Tanoan Family, Tanoan People, Tanoan Nation. A linguistic family consisting of the Tewa, Tano, Tigua, Jemez, and Piro groups of Pueblo Indians, who dwell or dwelt in various substantial villages on and near the Rio Grande in New Mexico.  Of the groups mentioned the Tano and Piro are extinct as tribes and the Jemez includes …

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Missisauga Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Jones, Peter (Kahkewaquonaby, Kahkewagwonnaby). A mixed-blood Missisauga chief, missionary, and author; born Jan. 1, 1802, died June 29, 1856. His father was a white man of Welsh descent named Augustus Jones, who maintained the closest friendship with Brant during the latter’s life. Peter’s mother was Tuhbenahneeguay, daughter of Wahbanosay, a chief of the Missisauga on …

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Seechelt Tribe

Seechelt Indians, Seechelt First Nation, Seechelt People (Si-‘ciatl). A Salish tribe on Jervis and Seecheltinlets, Nelson island, and the south part of Texada island, British Columbia. They speak a distinct dialect and are thought by Hill-Tout on physical grounds to be related to the Lillooet. Anciently there were 4 divisions or septs – Kunechin, Tsonai, Tuwanek, and …

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Quinaielt Tribe

Quinaielt Indians. A Salish tribe on Quinaielt river, Washington and along the coast between the Quileute and the Quaitso on the north (the latter of which probably formed a part of the tribe), and the Chehalis on the south.  Lewis and Clark described them in two divisions, the Calasthocle and the Quiniilt, with 100 and …

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Poospatuck Tribe

Poospatuck Indians, Poospatuck Tribe, Poosepatuck Indians. Also called Uncachogee. One of the 13 tribes of Long Island, New York, probably subordinate to the Montauk. They occupied the south shore from Patchogue Island to the Shinnecock Country. In 1666 a reservation was ceded to their sachem, Tobaccus, on Forge river, a short distance above the town …

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Patchoag Tribe

Patchoag Indians (where they divide in two, referring to two streams forming one river – Trumbull). A tribe on the south coast of Long Island, New York, extending from Patchogue to Westhampton. Besides their principal village, bearing the same name, they had others at Fireplace, Mastic, Moriches, and Westhampton. The Connetquot Indians were a part …

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Pequawket Tribe

Pequawket Indians (a name of disputed etymology, the most probable rendering, according to Gerard, being ‘at the hole in the ground,’ from pekwakik). A tribe of the Abnaki confederacy, formerly living on the headwaters of Saco River and about Lovell’s Pond, in Carroll County, New Hampshire, and Oxford County, Maine. Their principal village, called Pequawket, …

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Opelousa Tribe

Opelousa Indians (probably ‘black above’, i. e. ‘black hair’ or ‘black skull’). A small tribe formerly living in south Louisiana. It is probable that they were identical with the Onquilouzas of La Harps, spoken of in 1699 as allied with the Washa and Chaouacha, wandering near the seacoasts, and numbering with those two tribes 200 …

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Onathaqua Tribe

Onathaqua Indians (possibly intended for Ouathaqua). A tribe or village about Cape Cañaveral east coast of Florida, in constant alliance with the Calusa in 1564 (Laudionniére). Probably identical in whole or in part with the Ais tribe. Not to be confounded with Onatheaqua. Alternate Spellings: Oathkaqua – De Bry map (1591) in Le Moyne, Narr., …

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Grigra Tribe

Grigra Indians, Grigras. A French nickname and the only known name of a small tribe all ready incorporated with the Natchez confederacy in 1720; it was applied because of the frequent occurrences of grigra in their language and ethnic relations, but unless affiliated with the Tonica, the tribe was evidently distinct from every other, since, …

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