Collection: Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico

Biographical Sketch of Hornotlimed

Hornotlimed: A Seminole chief who came into notice chiefly through a single incident of the Seminole war of 1817-18. He resided at the Fowl Town, in northwest Florida, at the beginning of hostilities, but was forced to flee to Mikasuki. On Nov. 30, 1817, three vessels arrived at the mouth of Apalachicola River with supplies for the garrison farther up the stream, but on account of contrary winds were unable to ascend. Lieutenant Scott was sent to their assistance with a boat and 40 men, who, on their return from the vessels, were ambushed by Hornotlimed and a band of

Biography of Hillis Hadjo

Hillis Hadjo, Francis the Prophet – (hilis ‘medicine’, hadsho ‘crazy’, an official at the busk, q. v.). A noted Seminole leader in the early part of the 19th century, usually known among the whites as Francis the Prophet, and whose name is also recorded as Hidlis Hadjo, Hillishago, Hillishager, etc. He took an active part in the Seminole war, and is accused of having been one of the chief instigators of the second uprising. He seems to have come into public notice as early as 1814, as on Apr. 18 of that year Gen. Jackson wrote from his camp at

Digger Indians

Digger Tribe. Said by Powell to be the English translation of Nuanuints, the name of a small tribe near St George, southwest Utah. It was the only Paiute tribe practicing agriculture, hence the original signification of the name, ‘digger.” In time the name was applied to every tribe known to use roots extensively for food and hence to be “diggers.” It thus included very many of the tribes of California, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, tribes speaking widely different languages and embracing perhaps a dozen distinct linguistic stocks. As the root-eaters were supposed to represent a low type of

Yonkalla Tribe

Yonkalla Indians. The southernmost Kalapooian tribe, formerly living on Elk and Calapooya Creeks, tributaries of Umpqua River, Oregon. According to Gatschet there were two bands, called Chayankeld and Tsantokau by the Lakmiut, but it seems likely that the former name (Tch’ Ayanke-‘ld) is merely the native tribal name. The tribe is probably extinct.

Yahuskin Tribe

Yahuskin Indians. A Shoshonean band which prior to 1864 roved and hunted with the Walpapi about the shores of Goose, Silver, Warner, and Harney Lakes, Oregon, and temporarily in Surprise Valley and Klamath Marsh, where they gathered wokas for food. They came specially into notice in 1864, on Oct. 14 of which year they became party to the treaty of Klamath Lake by which their territory was ceded to the United States and they were placed on Klamath Reservation, established at that time. With the Walpapi and a few Paiute who had joined them, the Yahuskin were assigned lands in

Walapai Tribe

Walapai Indians (Xawálapáya, ‘pine tree folk.’ – Harrington). A Yuman tribe originally living on middle Colorado River, above the Mohave tribe, from the great bend eastward, well into the interior chiefly by the chase and on roots and seeds. They are said to have been brave and enterprising, but physically inferior to the Mohave. The Havasupai, who are an offshoot, speak a closely-related language. The Walapai numbered 728 in 1889, 631 in 1897, and 498 in 1910. They are under the administration of a school superintendent on the Walapai Reservation of 730,880 acres in north west Arizona, and are making

Tuscarora War

The rapid encroachment of the whites on the lands of the Tuscarora and their Indian neighbors for a period of sixty years after the first settlements, although there was an air of peace and harmony between the two races, there were wrongs which dwarfed in comparison with the continued practice of kidnapping their young to be sold into slavery. This was the true cause of the so-called Tuscarora war in 1711-13. This phase of the question is overlooked or quite disregarded by most historians; but years before the massacre of 1711, Tuscarora Indians were brought into Pennsylvania and sold as

Tutchonekutchin Tribe

Tutchonekutchin Indians, Tutchonekutchin People, Tutchonekutchin First Nation (‘Crow people’) A Kutchin tribe on Yukon River from Deer River to Ft. Selkik, Yukon Territory, Canada.  They number about 1,100 and differ but little from their Kutchin neighbors below.

Tukkuthkutchin Tribe

Tukkuthkutchin Indians (‘squint-eyed people’) A Kutchin tribe at the head of Porcupine River, occupying the territory between the headwaters of Porcupine river and Ft. McPherson, in the northern Yukon Territory, Canada.  Their eyes are frequently small and oblique, hence their name.  Although barbarous they are more intelligent than other tribes. They are a commercial people, living by barter. Though good hunters, rarely lacking food, they do not hunt furs, but exchange their beads, which form the circulating medium for the peltry of the neighboring tribes.  They are fond of oratorical display, and in their harangues the voice of the speaker

Tatlitkutchin Tribe

Tatlitkutchin Indians (‘Peel river people’). A Kutchin tribe, closely allied to the Tukkuthkutchin, living on the east band of Peel river, British Columbia, between lat. 66º and 67º.  For a part of the season they hunt on the mountains, uniting sometimes with parties of the Tukkuthkutchin.  They confine their hunting to the caribou, as they no longer have moose hunters among them.  In 1866 they numbered 30 hunters and 60 men.