Collection: Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico

Wiyot Tribe

A small tribe, whose name Powell adopted for the Wishoskan linguistic family, on the coast of North California about Humboldt Bay. The word seems to be a misapplication of their own name for their Athapascan neighbors, Wishashk. Wiyot, which has sometimes been used as an equivalent, is therefore probably a better term than Wishosk, though not entirely exact.

Pomo girl photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1924

Big Valley Tribe

Big Valley Tribal members are descendants of the Xa-Ben-Na-Po Band of Pomo Indians that historically have inhabited the Clear Lake area of Lake County, California. In 1851, Big Valley Pomo leaders met with a representative of the President of the United States and all agreed upon a treaty that would allow them to live in peace and harmony with the new settlers coming to the area. This treaty established a reservation with a habitable area of approximately 72 square miles on the South side of Clear Lake which encompassed Mt. Konocti east of Kelsey Creek. The area also included significant

Pomo Basket

Pomo Basket Making

Pomo baskets were used for many practical purposes. The first use of a basket was a baby basket which was well made, and could be transported by placing it on the back and using a net and forehead band, packed at the side, or in the arms. Baskets were also used for food preparation. The weave of this basket was so tight that it would hold water. When water was added the basket material would swell, ensuring that it would continue to hold water. One would wonder how did we cook food without burning the basket. This was done by

Norridgewock Tribe

A tribe of the Abenaki confederacy, their territory embraced the Kennebec Valley nearly to the river’s mouth. Their closest relationship was with the Penobscot, Arosaguntacook, and Wewenoc Indians.

Tammany Society

The Tammany society – occasionally at first known as the Columbian Order took an Indian title and formulated for itself a ritual based upon supposedly Indian custom.

Indian Tribe Structure

Among the North American Indians a tribe is a body of persons who are bound together by ties of consanguinity and affinity and by certain esoteric ideas or concepts derived from their philosophy concerning the genesis and preservation of the environing cosmos, and who by means of these kinship ties are thus socially, politically, and religiously organized through a variety of ritualistic, governmental, and other institutions, and who dwell together occupying a definite territorial area, and who speak a common language or dialect. From a great variety of circumstances-climatic, topographic, and alimental-the social, political, and religious institutions of the tribes

I – Florida Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico. Iniahico A principal Apalachee village in 1539, near the site of Tallahassee, Florida. Itafi A district of Florida where one of the Timuquanan dialects was spoken. 1Pareja (ca. 1614), Arte Leng. Timuq., xxi, 1886. Itara A former village in North Florida, visited by De Soto’s troops in 1539. Ivitachuco A former principal town of the Apalachee, possibly near the present Wacahotee, Florida. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Pareja (ca. 1614), Arte Leng. Timuq., xxi, 1886.

Bloody Knife

Biography of Bloody Knife

A famous Arikara warrior and chief, who was long in the Government service. His father was a Hunkpapa Sioux and his mother an Arikara. He was born on the Hunkpapa Reservation, North Dakota, but as he approached manhood his mother determined to return to her people and he accompanied her. Prior to the building of the Northern Pacific R. R. the mail for Ft Stevenson, North Dakota, and other Missouri River points, was carried overland from Ft Totten. The high country east of the Missouri was at that time a hunting ground for hostile Sioux who had been driven west

Algonquian Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Atchaterakangouen. An Algonquian tribe or band living in the interior of Wisconsin in 1672, near the Mascouten and Kickapoo.

Creek Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Chukotalgi (toad). An extinct Creek clan, closely affiliated with the Toad or Sopaktalgi clan. Fusualgi. The Forest Bird (?) clan of the Creeks Hlahloalgi (fish people). An extinct Creek clan. Hutalgalgi (hútali ‘wind ‘, algi people). A principal Creek clan. Isfanalgi. An extinct clan of the Creeks, said by Gatschet to be seemingly analogous to the Ishpani phratry and clan of the Chickasaw. Itamalgi. A Creek clan. Itchhasualgi (itchhasua ‘beaver’, algi