Choctaw Mixed Bloods

Wells, Dr. Samuel James. Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal. University of Southern Mississippi. 1987. © Dr. Samuel James Wells, 1987. Used by permission.

Sample of Mixed Blood Ubiquity: Representative Family Histories

The extant records concerning the traders and other countrymen are uneven in their coverage of mixed-blood families. Although only the better-known families were chronicled in the works of early regional historians and authors commenting on the Indian tribes, the existence of scores of surnames within these records indicates that mixed-blood families were widespread in the …

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Probable Mixed-Blood Heads of Household, 1834

Appendix C Notes Names: Listed alphabetically. There are a few names listed twice. In most cases this represents different individuals, especially if the names are from the same source. In the case of duplicate names from separate sources, a chance of the names being the same person is likely, but not assumed. Location: The orthography varies but …

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Pitchlynn Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Pitchlynn Choctaw family, although represented by one of the smallest name lists in this study, has a long and noted history in the literature of the Old Southwest and Indian Territory (see Chart 18). The eldest Pitchlynn, Isaac, was still alive in 1804 although in ill health. His son, John Pitchlynn, Jr., is recorded …

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Nail Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

[92]Another ubiquitous family, the Nails (see Chart 17), was intermarried into several full-blood and mixed-blood families. Cushman, while visiting the gravesites of some noted Choctaws in Indian Territory, discussed the Nail family: “Close by that of Colonel David Folsom’s was the grave of Joel H. Nail, a brother-in-law to Colonel Key to Chart Probable = …

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LeFlore Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

When prominent mixed-blood families began to emerge from the Choctaw people in the early 1800s they usually did so where one or both parents were mixed bloods themselves. A case in point is the Leflore family. According to Cushman,  the brothers Michael and Louis were living in[90] Choctaw country as early as the late eighteenth …

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Jefferson, Mixed Bloods and Frontier Defense

[102]By the beginning of the nineteenth century at least two major changes had altered the political environment affecting the Choctaw Indians. Within the Choctaw tribe several countrymen were beginning to exert influence in tribal decisions. Although not yet accepted as equals to the chiefs, white men such as Nathaniel Folsom and John Pitchlynn were respected …

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Introduction, Choctaw Mixed Blood

One of the most controversial areas of American history is that of Indian/white relations and the federal policies, which led to Indian Removal. In the early and middle nineteenth century the United States government embarked upon a program of wholesale government-sponsored emigration of tribes residing within the various states and territories. Later called the “Trail …

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Indian Removal and the Legacy

[177]The articles of removal of the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek were set into motion immediately. By 1831 and 1832 when Removal was in full force mixed bloods still maintained their positions of trust and authority within the tribe. During Removal the percentage of mixed-blood captains — the headmen and leaders of the organized emigrant …

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From Alliance to Removal

[138]Throughout the Jeffersonian period and later, the white countrymen and mixed bloods expanded their influence over the full-blood tribal members. One aspect of this can be seen by analyzing the ratio of full-blood to mixed-blood Choctaw signers of treaties with the United States. CHART 19 Breakdown of Choctaw treaty Signers Year Treaty Full Bloods Mixed …

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Folsom Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Folsom family is easily one of the best known of all mixed-blood groups (see Charts 10 and 11). Their earliest members in Choctaw country were reputedly the three brothers Edmond, Ebeneezer, and Nathaniel who migrated through Indian country with their parents prior to the American Revolution.  According to Cushman: “Nathaniel Folsom married Aiahnichih Ohoyo …

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Emeline Jane Smith, Application

No. 9576                                                                                                         Action: Reject Name: Emeline J. Smith and X children                     Residence: Mt. Vernon, Ala Reason: Applicant claims through her fathers brother who was ½ Cherokee and as applicant was born in 1833 and her father in 1790 her father’s mother must have been born about 1770. It does not appear that any ancestor was …

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Durant Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

The Durant family represents an important link between a large number of modern Alabamans and Mississippians of mixed blood heritage and its line can easily be traced into several prominent pre-Civil War southern families (see Charts 7, 8 and 9). One such example is the Linder family of south Alabama. Their history stretches back across …

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Database of Choctaw Mixed Blood Names

Part of the appendices from Choctaw Mixed Bloods and the Advent of Removal, by Dr. Samuel James Wells, consists of three expansive tables: Appendix A: Known and Probable Mixed Bloods (On this page. See further notes below table for more descriptive notes on Appendix A) Appendix B: Choctaw Mixed Bloods, 1831-33 (on a different page) Appendix C: Probable …

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Cravat Choctaw Family – List of Mixed Bloods

Horatio Cushman, the source of so many mixed-blood family histories and the only known source for facts about the Cravat family, states: “The Cravat family of Choctaws are the descendents of John Cravat, a Frenchman who came into the Choctaws at an early day, and was adopted among them by marriage. He had two daughters …

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Choctaw Trade and Coexistence in the Nation

After the discovery of the new world, trade quickly became the most important interaction between the American natives and the colonists. For the Indians it was an extension and continuation of their inter-tribal practices. Reuben Gold Thwaites, an early nineteenth-century student of the American frontier, stated that “the love of trade was strong among the …

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