Kwalhioqua Tribe

Kwalhioqua ( from Tkulxiyo-goa(‘ikc:kulxi, ‘at a lonely place in the woods’, their Chinook name.-  Boas) An Athapascan tribe which formerly lived on the upper course of Willopah river, western Washington.  Gibbs extends their habitat east into the upper Chehalis, but Boas does not believe they extended east of the Coast range.  They have been confounded by Gibbs and others with a Chinookan tribe on the lower course of the river called Willopah.  The place where they generally lived was called Nq!ul´was. The Kwalhioqua and Willopah have ceded their land to the United States 1.  In 1850 two males and several females survived.  Hale 2 who estimated them at about 100, said that they built no permanent habitations, but wandered in the woods, subsisting on game, berries and roots, and were bolder, hardier and more savage than the river and coast tribes.Citations:

  1. Royce in 18th Rep. B.A. E., pt. 2, 832, 1899[]
  2. Hale, Ethnog. and Philol., 204, 1846[]

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

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