South Carolina Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico.

Ahoyabe. A small town, possibly Muskhogean, subject to the Hoya, and lying between them and the Coosa, on the coast of s. S. C., in 1567. Vandera in Smith, Coll. Docs. Fla., I, 16, 1857.

Apalachicola. A town on Savannah r., in what is now Hampton co., S. C., where was settled a remnant of the Apalachee from the towns about Apalachee bay, which were carried thither as captives when the tribe was destroyed by Gov. Moore in 1703. (A. S. G.)

Aracuchi. An unidentified village apparently in x. w. S. C., visited by Juan Pardo in 1565. Vandera (1567) in Smith, Colec. Docs. Fla., I, 17, 1857.

Ashipoo. An unidentified village on a stream between Edisto and Combahee r., S. C., about 12 m. from the coast. Brion de la Tour, map U. S., 1784.

Avendaughbough. A former village, probably of the Sewee, in South Carolina in 1701. Lawson, Hist. Car., 24, 1860.

Backhook. One of the small tribes formerly living on lower Pedee r. and its branches in South Carolina. Almost nothing is known of it. With the Hook tribe they are mentioned by Lawson as foes of the San tee and as living in 1701 about the mouth of Winyah bay, S. C.

Canuga  The name of two former Cherokee towns, one, a Lower Cherokee settlement, apparently on the waters of Keowee r., S. C., destroyed in 1761; the other a traditional settlement on Pigeon r., probably near the present Waynesville, Hay wood co., N. C. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 479, 524, 1900.

Cheesoheha. A former Cherokee settlement on a branch of Savannah r. , in upper South Carolina; destroyed during the Revolutionary war. (J. M.)

Chicora. The name given by the Spaniards at the time of Ayllon’s visit in 1521 to the coast region of South Carolina, s. of Edisto r. , and to the Indians inhabiting it. The name Cusabo, subsequently applied, included most of the tribes of the same region. Gatschet suggests that the name Chicora is derived from the Catawba Yuchi-kĕré, ‘Yuchi are there, or over there’, but the connection is not very obvious. The French form of about the same period, Chigoula, has more the appearance of a Muskhogean word. Fontaneda, about 1570, makes Chicora and Orista (Edisto) equivalent. The tribes of this region were practically exterminated by Spanish and English slave hunters before the close of the 17th century.

Chunacansti. Mentioned by Alcedo (Die. Geog., i, 565, 1786) as a pueblo of the province of South Carolina, on a swift river of the same name which flows s. E. to the sea. Unidentified.

Churchcates. A small unidentified tribe mentioned by Gov. Archdale, of South Carolina, in the latter part of the 18th century, in a complaint that the Appalachicoloes, or English Indians, had attacked and killed 3 of them. Carroll, Hist. Coll. S. C., 11, 107, 1836.

Cofitachiqui. A town and province of the Yuchi(?), situated on Savannah r.; visited by De Soto in 1540. According to Pickett (Inv. of Ala.., 41, 1849) there was a tradition among the Indians about 1735 that the town stood on the E. bank at Silver Bluff, Barnwell co., S. C., and this view is taken by Jones (De Soto in Ga., 1880). On the other hand, the name of Vandera’s Canos (Smith, Col. Doc. Fla., i, 16, 1857), identified with this place, is preserved in Cannouchee, a N. w. affluent of Ogechee r., Ga., while another place called Cannouchee is in Emanuel co., Ga. The province was governed at the time of De Soto’s visit by a woman who was at war with the people of Ocute and Cofaqui. She gave the Spaniards a friendly reception and entertained them for several days. This friendship was ill requited by the Spanish leader, who carried her away with him a prisoner, but she managed to escape in the mountainous region of N. E. Georgia, returning to her village with a Negro slave who had deserted the army. Her dominion extended along the river to about the present Habersham co., Ga., and westward probably across a third or more of the state. (C. T.)

Cohoth. A province of the s. coast of South Carolina, mentioned by Ayllon in 1520. Barcia, Ensayo, 5, 1723.

Combahee. A small tribe formerly living on Combahee r. , S. C. Little is known of its history, as it early became extinct. See Rivers, Hist. S. C., 94, 1874.

Conoross (corruption of Kăwân′urâ′-sûñyĭ, or Kăwân′tsurâ′-sûñyĭ, ‘where the duck fell off’). The supposed name of a Cherokee settlement on Conoross cr., which enters Keowee or Seneca r. from the w., in Anderson co., S. C. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 412, 1900.

Duahe. Mentioned by Oviedo (Hist. Gen. Indies, m,628, 1853) as one of the provinces or villages visited by Ayllon in 1520; probably on the South Carolina coast.

Ecochee. A former Cherokee settlement on a head stream of Savannah r., in N. w. South Carolina or N. E. Georgia. It was destroyed during the Revolutionary war. (J. M.)

Edisto. A small tribe, now extinct, which appears to have occupied lower Edisto r., S. C., which derived its name from that of the tribe. The Huguenots of Ribault’s colony were kindly welcomed by them in 1562, and the Spaniards for a time had a mission among-them. They were included in the Cusabo group, and are mentioned in connection with the Stono, Westo, and Savannah as still living in the region named in 1670, when English colonization began. With the Westo and Stono they were possibly driven out by the Shawnee in 1680. Gatschet thinks it probable that they spoke the Uchean language. See Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, Bull. B. A. E., 1894.

Ellijay (from Elǎtsé, abbr. of Elǎtséyiĭ, possibly green [verdant] ‘earth’). The name of several former Cherokee settlements. One was on the headwaters of Keowee r., S.C.; another was on Ellijay cr. of Little Tennessee r., near the present Franklin, Macon co., N. C.; another about the present Ellijay in Gilmer co., Ga., and a fourth on Ellejoy cr. of Little r., near the present Maryville, in Blount co., Tenn. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 517, 1900.

Enfrenado (Span.: ‘bridled ). An Indian village about 40 leagues from C. Santa Helena, in s. South Carolina, visited by Juan Pardo in 1565Vandera (1567) in Smith, Colec. Doc. Fla., i, 16, 1857.

Estatoee. Two former Cherokee settlements, one on Tugaloo r. below the junction of Chattooga and Tallulah rs., in Oconee co., S. C., the other in the n. w. part of Pickens co. The former was generally known as Old Estatoee.

Etiwaw (Catawba: ‘pine tree’). A small tribe, now extinct, forming part of the Cusabo group and living about Ashley and Cooper rs., Berkeley co., S. C., extending E. to the present Monk s Corner, where their hunting grounds bordered the Sewee country. The Santee and Conga were above them. They were never prominent historically, and in Jan., 1715, had a single village with 240 inhabitants (Rivers, Early Hist, S. C., 94, 1874). Nothing is heard of them after the Yamasi war in 1715, until 1751, when they are mentioned as one of the small tribes for which the South Carolina government made peace with the Iroquois. From this time they seem to have be come lost to history. Their name is preserved in Eutaw Springs, and in Pine Tree, another name for Camden, S. C. Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, Bull. B. A. E., 1894.

Guacaya. Mentioned by Oviedo (Hist. Gen. Indies, in, 628, 1853) as one of the provinces or villages on or in the general vicinity of the South Carolina coast, visited by Ayllon in 1520.

Gueza. An Indian settlement in w. South Carolina, probably in the present Edgefield co., visited by Juan Pardo in 1565. Vandera in Smith, Colec. Doc. Fla., 1, 17, 1857.

Guiomaer. A village said to be 40 leagues from St Helena, probably in or near the present Barnwell co., S. C.; visited by Juan Pardo in 1566. La Vandera ( 1569 ) in Smith, Colec. Doc. Fla., i, 16, 1857.

Hickerau A small Santee village on a branch of Santee r., S. C., in 1701.

Hoya. The name of a chief and also of a former settlement on or near the s. coast of South Carolina, visited by Jean Ribault in 1562. Apparently the Ahoya mentioned by Vandera in 1567. The people were friendly with and were possibly related to the Edisto, q. v.

Huspah. A Yamasi band living in South Carolina under a chief of the same name about the year 1700. (A. S. G.)

Icosans. Mentioned by Bartram (Trav., 54, 1792) in connection with the Ogeeche, Santee, Utina, Wapoo, Yamasi, etc., as having been attacked by the Creeks, and “who then surrounded and cramped the English possessions.” The reference is to the early colonial period of South Carolina and Georgia.

Inisiguanin. Mentioned as one of the towns or provinces apparently on or in the vicinity of the South Carolina coast, visited by Ayllon in 1520.

Itseyi (Itséyĭ, new green place, or ‘place of fresh green’; often falsely rendered ‘Brasstown’, from the confusion of Itséyĭ and Uñtsaiyĭ, the latter term signifying brass). The name of several former Cherokee settlements. One was on Brasstown cr. of Tugaloo r., in Oconee co., S. C. ; another was on Little Tennessee r., near the present Franklin, Macon co., N. C., and probably about the junction of Cartoogaja cr. ; a third, known to the whites as Brasstown, was on upper Brasstown cr. of Hiwassee r., Towns co., Ga. Mooney in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 523, 1900.

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

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