Lipan Apache Tribe

Lipan Apache Indians (adapted from Ipa-n’de, apparently a personal name; n’de=’people’). An Apache tribe, designating themselves Náizhan (‘ours,’ ‘our kind’), which at various periods of the 18th and 19th centuries roamed from the lower Rio Grande in New Mexico and Mexico eastward through Texas to the Gulf coast, gaining a livelihood by depredations against other tribes and especially against the white settlements of Texas and Mexico. The name has probably been employed to include other Apache groups of the southern plains, such as the Mescaleros and the Kiowa Apache. The Franciscan mission of San Saba was established among the Lipan in Texas in 1757, but it was soon destroyed by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita. In 1761-62 the missions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were also founded, but these met a like fate in 1767.

In 1805 the Lipan were reported to be divided into 3 bands, numbering 300, 350, and 100 men, respective: this apparently gave rise to their subdivision by Orozco N, Berra in 1864 into the Lipajenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes de Abajo.

In 1849, under chief Castro, they sided with the Texans againt the Comanche 1 ; they were always friendly, with their congeners, the Mescaleros, and with the Tonkawa after 1855, but were enemies of the Jicarillas and the Ute. Between 1845 and 1850 they suffered severely in the Texan wars, the design of which was the extermination of the Indians within the Texas border. Most of them were driven into Coahuila, Mexico, where they resided in the Santa Rosa mountains with Kickapoo and other refugee Indians from the United States, until the 19 survivors were taken to northwestern Chihuahua, in Oct., 1903, whence they were brought into the United States about the beginning of 1905 and placed on the Mescalero reservation, New Mexico, where they now (1905) number about 25 and are making more rapid progress toward civilization than their Indian neighbors. In addition there are one or two Lipan numbered with the 54 Tonkawa under the Ponca, Pawnee, and Oto agency, Oakland Reservation, Oklahoma, and a few with the Kiowa Apache in the same territory, making the total population about 35.

The Lipan resemble the other Apache in all important characteristics. They were often known under the designation Cancy, Chanze, etc., the French form of the Caddo collective name (Kä’ntsi) for the eastern Apache tribes.Citations:

  1. Schoolcraft, Thirty Years,642, 1851[]

Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

20 thoughts on “Lipan Apache Tribe”

  1. Jon Haith-Perusquia

    To Whom it may concern,
    This has been a long journey now, I have picked my grandfathers brain as much as I could but with no avail. I have been researching my lineage on both side of my family and found that I am Occaneechi Band of Saponi Nation on my fathers side, and I have a very strong hunch that my mother side may descend from the Lipan Apache. I have completed a DNA test on my maternal grandfather and he came in at 44% NATIVE AMERICAN and i came in at 10-11% NATIVE AMERICAN. My mother completed her own and she came in at about 22% NATIVE AMERICAN, so that tells me where my 11% comes from. I have been getting high percentage matches from cousins with the following SUR NAMES: CAMPOS, GARZA, GUZMAN, GONZALES,SILVA, LUNA,LOPES(Z), TREVINO, VILLARREAL and quite a few more. in my tree I have traced a few SUR NAMES: GUERRA de los Santos, JAIME, HINOJOSA, SOLIS, and VARGAS. I just found that my GUERRA de los Santos married a Silas Campbell and her mothers people owned land El Rancho de San Lorenzo in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. I would like to know of any info. you may have on any of these families. Thank you very much for your time
    Sincerly, Jon Haith-Perusquia

  2. Greetings:
    I have a deep sense of wander as I search for my roots. My maternal
    Side hails from Presidio, and there have always been oral histories of our Lipan Apache heritage. My mother’s cousin managed to actually register but the tribal
    Council has not opened registration in many years.
    I would like to research our ancestry to understand my responsibilities and become involved.
    I just don’t know where to start.
    Presidio Tx
    Surnames: Palma. Rico.

  3. First, up until 1978 there were no race selection for native americans on the US Birth Cert… so Caucasian was the best choice if you wanted your child to have any rights.
    2. Do a DNA test and start building your family tree.

  4. am having a hard time finding records for Juanita Gracia Gonzales want to contact the alabama-Coushetta reservation to see if she is buried there.have been on wiki to search lots of native american records but so far no hits. if any one has an idea i am open to search it out sincerely Norrita Sanders collaborater for Kacy gonzales (53 % apache Lipan tribe

  5. Hello I was wanting to speak with Sylvia Garza as she had mentioned her family was from La Grulla , my 3x grandmother was also for there and was wondering if she could share any knowledge she had about the area. Thank you

  6. Ausben StrongHeart

    My name is Ausben also know as Ausben StrongHeart. My family descends from Creole people of Louisiana. African Americans that married and had Children with French, Spanish, Canncei Nde’ and Chatta people that were Prisoners of war (Slaves) and Free people of Color in Louisiana’s Cane River Plantations. My families Lipan Ancestor goes by the name of Marie Therese born around 1793 who’s mother side came from Coahuila, Mexico at the time called new Spain. I had already been raised in pow wow and traditional culture from age 8 because of my mother and Grandmothers influence. My Fiancé is White Mountain Apache. I have just recently connected to those family members in Louisiana as my family have lived in East Texas Red River area for a few generation now. It feels good to be connected to many newly found family that have migrated to many parts of the USA. Im still learning and have much to learn about my family cant wait for the rest of this Amazing journey.

  7. Sylvia, hi, sorry it’s been a couple years, can you please tell me your exact name on your tree so I am able to view it, thank you

  8. I am collaborator for kacy Gonzales . She is 53 % native Apache and from a cousin thinks they are Lipan Apache. Her Grandmothe it is said is buried on a reservation in Texas.Her name is Juanita Gracia (spelled right) She was born about 1900 married and had a child july 14 1922 in Bishop Texas She died just a few yr later .Her husband Lionel Felix Gonzales was from mexico and the story is that he crossed the border to court her .He went on to marry again and moved to OREGON AND IS BURIED IN NYSSA OREGON.cAN YOU GIVE US ANY ADVICE ABOUT HOW TO GO ABOUT TO PROVE HER LINEAGE. I did recieve an email from linda Walking woman on the council telling me about three reservations in in Texas she also said Lipan Apache never had their own reservation The three were Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, Kickapoo-Traditional tribe of Texas and Yeleta Del sur Pueblo please advise Norrita Sanders

  9. My Apache Family, I am also in search of my roots! The stories of my childhood on my mothers side of the family, always ended with comments that we were Natives from Texas. My siblings are also wanting to know and finally establish our identity. My uncle, Felipe Martinez, aunt Celestina Martinez are the last of our ‘Historians of the Past’! I don’t want my story to end without knowing my true heritage. My birth certificate states that I am Caucasian, although both of my parents are not Caucasian! My DNA test results came back as 58% Native American!

    The starting point? I do not know where to start searching! I am interested in any advise from the Apache Council on what avenues I should pursue to submit my personal history and identity. As I reach my late 50’s, I would like to establish and be ‘accepted’ and recognized (legally) as an Apache.

    Thank you so much!

    Rebecca Boutwell

  10. Sylvia,
    My name is Rodolfo Lopez. I go by Rudy since I moved to Dallas.I am originally from Edinburg,
    Texas. I too have been wanting to know about my family background. I know we have Indian
    blood but don’t know where to start. I read your post and need your help. Where is the chairman
    that you spoke with? Where do I start to try to enroll, and eventully get an ID card? By the way,
    I graduated From Pan-Am. Did you attend Pan Am? Hope to hear from you soon.

  11. hi my name is Joann Campos and I recently found out my moms side of the family (her dad side) are Lipan/apache tribe, my second cousin Snake blocker is very active in our tribe till this day. we are the Lipan/ Apache south Texas tribe. my cousin told me to write to the council of our tribe and let them know the info I have and how I can get enrolled, maybe you could try the same. do you know from where your tribe was from my cousin snake blocker resides in Denver and i know some our tribe live there and throughout Texas. I’m new at this myself hopefully you’ve found more info since posted your comment.

  12. Hello Estevan.. Great to hear from you. We also lived in Washington State. Had an uncle, Tomas Guzman that lived in Toppenish Wa for many years. We’re from La Grulla Texas and I found out we’re Lipan Apache. This really interest me so I’m still trying to find out more of our background. I’ll be doing my DNA test really get fact. Nice hearing from you. Take care.. Sylvia

  13. Hi Alias!! I’m so excited to hear from you. So you had contact with my cousin Alma? That is so nice. Yes, I started a family tree and pls. Feel free to view our family tree. I already registered. I’m waiting for my Native American Apache ID card. I got my tribe number and Lipan Apache is number. Thanks, for all the hard work of my cousin Alma Guzman.

  14. I am pretty sure I am a descendant Lipan Apache on my dad’s side. My great great grandfather was a Lipan. On my mom’s side, my great grand mother was an endigena from Piedras Negras and Nuevo Laredo which I believe was also part of Lipan Apache. Not sure but some answers would be great. Last names in my family are Araguz, Garza, and Sierra.

  15. Hi Syliva,

    My name is Estevan and I just found out my great grandfarher, on my dad’s side, was an endigeno Tejano, or a Lipan. On my mom’s side, my great grandmother was an endigena from Piedras Negras and Nuevo Laredo. Her maiden name was Garza. Im about to do my DNA to find out exactly what mix I am. I find it funny because I dont cant grow a beard, Im not very tall, and all my life Iv been teased about my facial appearance of not looking Hispanic. In fact, I live here in Washington State and work on the Yakama Indian reservation. Anyway, it would be nice to hear from you so I can get help with lineage so I can at least get descendant letter for my kids and I.


  16. Hi,I just read your comment. My name is Alisa Henke, do you happen to have a family tree on and did you do a DNA test from them? I have been actively researching my family history. I strongly believe I am from Lipan Apache roots. I also contacted Alma a few years back. If it’s alright with you, can I view your tree if you have one on Thank you, is my e-mail just in case. I didn’t make a tree yet because I am still gathering proper information. I did do a DNA test for myself and my Mother. Thank you again

  17. Hi,.My Names is Sylvia Garza (maiden. Name: Guzman) from La Grulla,
    Texas. My parents were Fidel and Maria Guzman. In 2015 I meet a cousin from
    La Grulla in las Vega. I tried to communicate with Alma Cruz,but with no
    luck. I know she pass away in Sept.2016. I was very sadden not to have had the
    opportunity to meet her. My cousin Elsa Guzman mentioned to me that we were from Indian descent, she showed me her native American card. She said that
    Alma had published a book.well to make this short I’m so interested in
    Knowing more about my background. I did research and drove to Edinburg Texas
    met with Chairman of the lipan apache of Texas. I finally got my Member Id
    and I’m enrolled, like Alma was, but I’m still searching for answers. I wish
    I could have meet Alma to Thank her for all the hard work and great job
    she did. Hope to hear from someone out there soon. Sincerely yours Sylvia Garza.

    Sent from Yahoo Mail on Android

  18. hi my name is teresa a im trying to find out more about my family history … im being told that im apache and now im being told that we are lipan apache i dont have the money for a genealogy test so how do i go about finding my background history??? i want to know more about my family history!!! im hoping somebody can help me out thanks in advance teresa a

  19. Theresa Lebrun Rodriguez

    Thank you for your information. my 3x great grandmother, Jeanne Simon, born May 22,1784. I am just learning about my father’s family. my father passed away when I was 6 year’s old.My grandmother married my grandfather who was a Chitimacha Indian, they were married in Campti Louisiana. It seems that most of all of my grandparents were Indian. My cousin is on the Natchitoches Indian counsel, Natchitoches Louisiana. I am proud to know who I am! Thank you.

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