The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is a federally recognized Native American tribe situated in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Primarily composed of members of the Anishinaabeg people, specifically the Ojibwa (also known as Chippewa), the KBIC has a rich history that’s woven into the broader narrative of Native American existence in the Great Lakes region. This article delves into the detailed history of this vibrant community, tracing its roots, its struggles, and its achievements.
Origins and Early History
Historically, the Anishinaabeg were the largest group of Native Americans residing in the Great Lakes region. The Ojibwa were part of this large linguistic and cultural family. The ancestors of the KBIC were part of a group of Ojibwa people who migrated westwards from the Atlantic Coast, gradually settling in what is now known as the Keweenaw Bay area.
In the pre-European contact period, the Ojibwa lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle, moving between different locations according to the seasons, with fishing, hunting, and gathering forming their subsistence strategies. Their society was structured around clans, with decision-making and leadership roles shared among clan heads.
European Contact and Treaties
The first sustained contact between the Ojibwa people and Europeans happened in the 17th century, initially with French fur traders. The Ojibwa found themselves drawn into the fur trade economy, which profoundly affected their traditional lifestyles.
One of the defining moments in the history of the KBIC is the Treaty of 1842 with the U.S. government. This agreement involved the ceding of a large portion of Ojibwa land, including parts of what is now Upper Michigan, to the U.S. government. In exchange, the Ojibwa were to receive annuity payments and the right to hunt, fish, and gather on the ceded land.
However, dissatisfaction over the handling of treaty obligations led to the signing of another treaty in 1854. This treaty established permanent reservations for the Ojibwa, including the L’Anse Reservation, which became the home of the KBIC.
Formation of the KBIC and Struggles for Autonomy
Despite the creation of the L’Anse Reservation, the U.S. government, as part of its assimilation policy, attempted to relocate the tribe to the west in the late 19th century. The Ojibwa resisted this policy, leading to the Battle of the Huron Islands in 1893. Although the conflict was nonviolent, it highlighted the tribe’s firm resolve to retain their ancestral lands.
In 1934, the U.S. government enacted the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), allowing tribes to establish their own governments. In 1936, the KBIC adopted a constitution under the IRA, formally establishing itself as a recognized tribal government. The constitution allowed for a Tribal Council, consisting of twelve members, to be elected by the KBIC’s adult population. The council was, and still is, responsible for the community’s overall governance and management of tribal affairs.
However, the relationship between the KBIC and the federal and state governments has not been without contention. Over the years, the tribe has engaged in several legal battles to assert their treaty rights, particularly concerning fishing rights on the Great Lakes. A landmark case was United States v. Michigan in 1979, where a federal court upheld the Ojibwa’s right to fish in ceded waters under the Treaty of 1842.
Economic Development and Contemporary Issues
Since the mid-20th century, the KBIC has sought ways to develop economically and improve the quality of life for its members. A major step towards self-sufficiency came with the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, which provided tribes the legal framework to operate casinos. The KBIC opened the Ojibwa Casino in 1994 in Baraga and a second in Marquette in 2003. These casinos have provided a significant source of revenue for the community, funding various tribal programs and services.
Aside from gaming, the KBIC has also pursued other economic ventures, including a gas station, a grocery store, and a fishing and fish processing operation. Furthermore, they have invested in renewable energy, building wind turbines to power their facilities, showcasing their commitment to sustainability and their ancestral connection to the land and environment.
Education has been another area of focus for the KBIC. In addition to operating an elementary school and a daycare center on the reservation, the community has put considerable effort into revitalizing the Ojibwa language and culture. They’ve established language programs and cultural classes, aiming to pass on traditional knowledge to younger generations and counteract the effects of past assimilation policies.
On the healthcare front, the KBIC runs the Donald A. LaPointe Health & Education Center, providing comprehensive medical services to its members. The center also operates substance abuse and mental health programs, reflecting the community’s commitment to addressing the health disparities that disproportionately affect Native American populations.
Continuing Struggles and Achievements
Despite these advancements, the KBIC, like many other Native American communities, continues to face various challenges. Economic disparities, limited job opportunities, and social issues persist. Yet, the community continually strives to address these issues through various initiatives and social programs.
For instance, the KBIC has been at the forefront of environmental stewardship, defending their lands and waters against potential mining projects that pose environmental risks. They have also been vocal advocates for the recognition of tribal sovereignty and the protection of treaty rights.
The KBIC’s journey is a testament to resilience and survival. From defending their ancestral lands and asserting their treaty rights to striving for economic self-sufficiency and the revitalization of their language and culture, they have continually navigated their path in modern America.
The story of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community is both unique and emblematic of broader Native American history. As we continue to learn about their past, we also look forward to seeing how their future unfolds – a future grounded in their rich heritage and driven by their enduring spirit.