Hupa Indians

The Hupa Indians, named after the Yurok term for their valley, Hupo, are also known by various names such as Cha’parahihu by the Shasta, Hich’hu by the Chimariko, and Kishakevira by the Karok. Their own name, Natinnoh-hoi, refers to their homeland along the Trinity River. The Hupa belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and shared close linguistic ties with the Chilula and Whilkut. They primarily resided along the middle course of the Trinity River, especially in the Hupa Valley and on New River. The Hupa established numerous villages, including Aheltah, Cheindekotding, and Haslinding. Historically, their population was estimated at 1,000 in 1770, decreasing to 500 by 1910 and slightly increasing to 575 by 1937. Today, their legacy continues in places like the village named Hupa in Humboldt County.


Hupa is derived from the Yurok name of the valley, Hupo. Hupa Indians were also called:

  • Cha’parahihu, Shasta name.
  • Hich’hu, Chimariko name.
  • Kishakevira, Karok name.
  • Nabiltse, given by Gibbs (1877) and translated “man.”
  • Natinnoh-hoi, own name, after Natinnoh, “Trinity River.”
  • Num-ee-muss, Yurok name.
  • Trinity Indians, translation of their own name.

Hupa Connections

The Hupa belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, forming one closely knit linguistic group with the Chilula and Whilkut.

Hupa Location

On the middle course of the Trinity River and its branches, particularly a beautiful stretch of 8 miles known as Hupa (or Hoopa) Valley, and on New River. C. H. Merriam (1926) treats these latter as a distinct tribe of Shastan affinities, but J. P. Harrington (personal information) states that they were Hupa.

Hupa Villages

  • Aheltah, name perhaps Yurok; said to be in the upper part of Hupa territory.
  • Cheindekotding, on the west bank of Trinity River between Kinchuhwikut and Miskut.
  • Dakis-hankut, on the west bank of Trinity River between Honsading and Kinchuhwikut.
  • Djishtangading, on the east bank of Trinity River between Howunkut and Haslinding.
  • Haslinding, in the “Sugar Bowl” above Hupa Valley.
  • Honsading, the village farthest down Trinity River and on the east bank.
  • Howunkut, on the west side of Trinity River between Medilding and Djishtangading.
  • Kachwunding, on Trinity River near the mouth of Willow Creek.
  • ‘Kek-kah’-na-tung, at Martha Ziegler’s place on the lower part of New River.
  • Kinchuhwikut, on the east bank of Trinity River between Dakishankut and
  • Cheindekotding.
  • Ki-ooch-wet-tung, at Sally Noble’s place on New River, about a quarter of a mile below the mouth of Panther Creek.
  • Klo-ne6-tung, at the present site of Quinby on New River.
  • Medilding, on the east bank of Trinity River between Totltsasding and Howunkut.
  • Me-yemma, possibly belonging to this tribe, but more likely Chimariko, on Trinity River just below the mouth of New River.
  • Mingkutme, on Trinity River near the mouth of Willow Creek.
  • Miskut, on the east bank of Trinity River between Cheindekotding and Takimitlding.
  • Sehachpaya, the name perhaps Yurok; said to have been in the upper part of the Hupa territory.
  • Sokeakeit, ibid.
  • Takimitlding, on the east bank of Trinity River between Miskut and Tsewenaiding.
  • Tashuanta, the name perhaps Yurok; said to have been in the upper part of the Hupa territory.
  • Tlelding, at the forks of the Trinity River.
  • Tl’okame, a subsidiary settlement of the preceding, 5 miles up the South Fork of Trinity River.
  • Totltsasding, on the west bank of Trinity River between the preceding and Medilding.
  • Tsa-nah’-ping-ah’-tung, on the bar or flat at New River Forks, at the junction of East Fork with maip New River.
  • Tsewenalding, on the east bank of Trinity River between Takimitlding and Totltsasding.
  • Waugullewatl, the name perhaps Yurok; said to have been in the upper part of the Hupa territory.

Connection in which the Hupa have become noted

A village in Humboldt County, preserves the name of the Hupa.

Hupa Population. Kroeber (1925) places the number of Hupa at 1,000 in 1770; the census of 1910 returned 500. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs returned 575. (See Bear River Indians.)


Topics:
Hupa,

Collection:
Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953.

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