Creek Towns

At the time when Porter and Perryman were interviewed (1881-82) they stated that there were 49 towns, each occupying a distinct territory, but that they had increased greatly after white contact and that tradition said there were originally but 18. These were all divided into two classes, one called the Italwalgi (Itulwulki) and the other the Kipayalgi (Kipayulki, Kipoywulki, Kupahyulki). 1 This last is also given as Tipayulki but this form seems to be erroneous. The towns called Italwalgi had control of important matters relating to civil government. Their badge was white, the emblem of peace and wisdom. The towns (or tribes) called Kipayalgi had charge of military affairs, and their badge was red, the emblem of war and prowess. In many respects the former had executive functions, while those of the latter were legislative and judicial. The colors mentioned were painted on doorposts and on various articles, and were used in bodily decoration. All of the people of a town, whether of White or Red clans, belonged as a whole to one of these two classes. Although the White towns were entitled to the civil offices, sometimes the Red towns obtained such dominion and power during war that they kept them when peace came. For instance, the White towns had civil control of the Creeks from time immemorial up to the Revolution of 1776, and then the Red towns obtained power and kept it until 1861. Since the Civil War, 1861-65, the White towns have again been in control. The White towns took sides under McGillivary with the British and this may have caused the change of power to the Red towns. The following list of the eighteen original towns with their daughter towns and the division of the nation to which each belonged is given by Perryman, but the more usual spellings of the town names leave been substituted.

Creek White Towns

  1. Tulsa
    Nos. 2 and 3 represent a division which took place after they migrated west. There is a note to the effect that the Tusked came from Tulsa but this is erroneous.

    1. Otclapofa (“In the hickory grove”).
    2. Tulsa Atcina-hetchee (“Cedar Creek Tulsa” or “Little River Tulsa”).
    3. Tulsa Kaniti ( “Tulsa Canadian”).
    4. Lutcapoga (“Turtle Place”).
  2. Tuskegee
    These two towns had divided only a short time before.

    1. Oi-tcadi Tuskegee (“Red Water Tuskegee”)
    2. Kaniti Tuskegee (“Canadian Tuskegee”).
  3. No. 1 is said to have been “the first.” No. 3 was inserted later and the insertion is erroneous. The name of No. 4 is also that of the Mississippi River.
    1. Tallahassee ( “Old Town”).
    2. Tukpafka (“Spunk Town”).
    3. Koasati.
    4. Wakokai (“Blue Heron Town”-the place where they nested).
  4. Okfuskee
    1. Okfuskee
    2. Tcatoksofka
    3. Abihkutci
    4. Nyaka

Creek Red Towns

  1. Coweta
    These two towns were formerly one.

    1. Coweta
    2. Likatcka
  2. Tukabahchee
    1. Holiwaliali
    2. Laplako
  3. These were one and came from Tukabahchee.
    1. Kaialedji
    2. Hatchee teaba.
  4. These were one.
    1. Atasi
    2. Tal-muchasi.
    1. Eufaula.
    2. Eufaula hobai (“Eufaula far away”).
  5. These three were one.
    1. Chiaha.
    2. Osochi.
    3. Hotalgihuyana (“Whrilwind Track”)


Hewitt, J. N. B. Notes on the Creek Indians. Edited by John R. Swanton. Anthropological Papers, No. 10. Bulletin 123, BAE. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1939.

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  1. Forty-second Ann. Rept. Bur. Ethn., pp 276-333; Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol 85, No. 8[]

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