Condition of the Arizona Indians in 1890

Arizona territory was formed from the territory captured from Mexico and ceded by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, and the lower portion is a part of the Gadsden purchase, December 30, 1853. The “Gadsden purchase” was generally known as “Arizona” prior to coming under the jurisdiction of the United States. The provisions of both treaties extend over the Indians therein.

The Indian population was in character from the earliest time when noted (in 1542) about the same as now, and probably never could have exceeded 40,000 in number. The barrenness of the country and lack of water precluded a large population. The reservation Indian population of Arizona in 1890 was 28,452, its non-reservation Indian population was 1,512, Indians in prisons not otherwise enumerated, 17; a total of 29,981. Geronimo’s band of Apaches, 384 in number, deported from Arizona in the interest of peace, now live in Alabama, at Mount Vernon barracks, near Mobile. They are known as the Chiricahua Apaches. “Natchez” was also a chief of this band. The Pimas and Papagos have always been the friends of the whites, and the Papagos claim to have never killed a white man.

Total Indian Population As Of June 1, 1800. 1
Total 29, 981

Reservation Indians, not taxed. (not counted in the general census) 28, 452
Indians in prisons, not otherwise enumerated 17
Indians off reservations, self-supporting and taxed (counted In the general census) 1, 512
Reservation Indians, not taxed 28, 452
Indians in prisons, not otherwise enumerated 17
Other persons with Indians, not otherwise enumerated 154

1890 Indian Population of Reservations in Arizona

Agencies and ReservationsTribeTotalMalesFemalesRation Indians
Colorado River AgencyMohave Apache (Yuman)640.00306.00334.0092.00
Pima Agency9,942.005,138.004,804.00
Salt River ReservationPima641.00323.00318.00
Salt River ReservationMaricopa315.00166.00149.00
Gila River ReservationPima3,823.001,942.001,881.00
Papago reservation and roaming Papago IndiansPapago5,163.002,707.002,456.00
San Carlos Agency4,832.002,257.002,575.001,427.00
White Mountain Apache reservationCayotero, 733: San Carlos and Tonto, 1,352: White Mountain Apache, 362,121.001,017.001,104.00951.00
Fort Apache subagencyWhite Mountain Apache1,920.00821.001,009.00137.00
Mohave reservationMohave551.00291.00260.00236.00
Yuma ReservationYuma240.00128.00112.00103.00
Navajo reservationNavajo (Apache)11,042.005,368.005,676.00
Moqui Pueblo reservationsMoqui1,996.00999.00907.00

The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of Arizona, counted in the general census, number 1,512, 840 males and 672 females, and are distributed as follows:

Pima County, 904
Pinal County, 138
Yavapai County, 27
Yuma County, 424
other counties with 9 or less in each, 19.

These Indians live much like the people of Mexican descent about them, and are more or less affected by the Spanish-American admixture of blood.

The Hualapai reservation has no agent; the superintendent of the Indian school at The Needles has nominal charge of it, and issues beef and salt from the appropriation of $7,500 made each year by Congress. The Indians supplied are the Chimejueves, Hualapais (a), and some wandering Apaches.

The Suppai reservation is a small one to the east of the Hualapai. Reservation, and is officially unoccupied.

The Navajo agency, situated in New Mexico, embraces the Navajo reservation, which lies in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. The portion of the reservation in Arizona contains an enumerated Navajo population of 11,042 out of a total of 17,204 Navajos enumerated and estimated.

The 384 Apaches of Geronimo’s band, now at Mount Vernon barracks, Alabama, are not included in the above Indian population of Arizona, but are counted as Indians not taxed under Alabama.

Tribe, Stock, And Location Of The Indians In Arizona 2

ArivaipaAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
Chillion (Cochise)AthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
ChimehuevaShoshoneanColorado RiverColorado River
Chirikahwa (includes Chillion and Arivaipa)AthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
HualapaiYumanColorado River (and roaming)Colorado River
Kemahwivi (Tantawait, Chimehueva)ShoshoneanColorado RiverColorado River
Koahuilia (Kawin)ShoshoneanColorado RiverColorado River
Koiotero (Coyotero)AthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
KokopaYumanNot on reservationColorado River
MaricopaYumanGila River and Salt RiverPima
MimbreAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
MogollonAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
MohaveYumanColorado RiverColorado River
Mohave ApacheYumanWhite MountainSan Carlos
Moqui MeshongnaviShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Moqui OraibiShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Moqui SeehumaviShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Moqui ShemopaviShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Moqui ShepolaviShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Moqui TewaShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Moqui WalpiShoshoneanMoquiNavajo
Ojo CalienteAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
PapagoPimanPapago and Gila Bend (and roaming)Pima
PimaPimanGila River and Salt RiverPima
PinalAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
San CarlosAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
Southern ApacheAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
Suppai (Cosnino)YumanSuppai
TontoYumanWhite MountainSan Carlos
White MountainAthapascanWhite MountainSan Carlos
Yuma ApacheYumanWhite MountainSan Carlos

Arizona Tribes in 1890

1890 Census,

Department of the Interior. Report on Indians Taxed and Indians not Taxed in the United States, Except Alaska at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1894.

Search Military Records - Fold3
  1. The self-supporting Indians, taxed, are in eluded in the general Census. The results of the special Indian census, to be added to the general census, are:
    Total 28,623[]
  2. The census names are Mishongnovi, Oraibi, Sichmninavi, Shumopavi, Shipaulavi, Tewa, and Walpi.[]

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