C- Canadian Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico.

  • Cabbasagunti. A small body of Indians dwelling in 1807 in the village of “Saint Francais,” on St Francis River, Quebec, in which they were named Cabbassaguntiac, i. e., people of Cabassaguntiquoke, signifying the place where sturgeon abound. The form Cobbisseconteag has been replaced by the modern Cobbosseecontee as the name of what formerly was Winthrop pond and outlet which flows into Kennebec River , in Kennebec County, Maine. These Indians, it is reported by Kendall, regarded themselves not only as inhabitants of Cabbassaguntiquoke, but also as true cabassas, or sturgeons, because one of their ancestors, having declared that he was a sturgeon, leaped into this stream and never returned in human form. They related a tale that below the falls of Cobbosseecontee River the rock was hewn by the ax of a mighty manito. (J. N. – B. H. )
  • Cahiague. A Huron village in Ontario, where the Jesuits had the mission of St. John the Baptist in 1640.
  • Canoe Creek. A Shuswap village and band near upper Fraser River, Brit, Col., about 300 m. from its mouth; pop. 157 in 1902. Can. Ind. Aff., 271, 1902.
  • Canoe Lake Indians. The local name for a body of Shuswap of Kamloops-Okanagan agency, Brit. Col.; pop. 129 in 1902,including the Chuckchuqualk, q,v. Can. Ind. Aff. for 1879, 309.
  • Cape Breton. One of the seven districts of the country of the Micmac, on Cape Breton Island, N. of Nova Scotia. The chief of this district was the head chief of the tribe (Rand, First Micmac Reading Book, 1875). The name occurs in a list of 1760 as the location of a Micmac village or band. (J. M.)
  • Cape Magdalen. An Algonkin mission established on the St Lawrence in 1670, 3 leagues below Three Rivers, Quebec, by Indians who removed from the latter place on account of smallpox. It was abandoned before 1760. Jefferys, Fr. Dom. Am., pt. i, 10, 110, 1761.
  • Cape Sable Indians. A name applied by early New England writers to those Micmac living near C. Sable, in s. Nova Scotia. The term is used by Hubbard as early as 1680. They were especially active in the wars on the New England settlements. (J. M.)
  • Carhagouha (in the forest. Hewitt). A Huron village in Tiny township, about 2 m. N. W. of La Fontaine, Ontario, about 1640.
  • Carmanah. A Nitinat village near Bonilla pt., s. w. coast of Vancouver Island; pop. 46 in 1902. Can. Ind. Aff., 264, 1902.
  • Caughnawaga. An Iroquois settlement on the Sault St Louis on St Lawrence River, Quebec. When the hostility of the pagan Iroquois to the missions established in their territory frustrated the object of the French to attach the former to their interests, the Jesuits determined to draw their converts from the confederacy and to establish them in a new mission village near the French settlements on the St Lawrence, in accordance with which plan these Indians were finally induced to settle at La Prairie, near Montreal, in 1668. These converts were usually called “French Praying Indians” or “French Mohawks” by the English settlers, in contradistinction to the Iroquois who adhered to their own customs and to the English interests. In 1676 they were removed from this place to Sault St Louis, where Caughnawaga and the Jesuit mission of St Francois du Sault were founded. The village has been removed several times within a limited area. The majority of the emigrants came from the Oneida and Mohawk, and the Mohawk tongue, somewhat modified, became the speech of the whole body of this village. The Iroquois made several unsuccessful efforts to induce the converts to return to the confederacy, and finally renounced them in 1684, from which time Caughnawaga became an important auxiliary of the French in their wars with the English and the Iroquois. After the peace of Paris, in 1763, many of them left their village on the Sault St Louis and took up their residence in the valley of Ohio River, principally about Sandusky and Scioto rs., where they numbered 200 at the outbreak of the American Revolution. From their contact with the wilder tribes of that region many of them relapsed into paganism, although they still retained their French allegiance and maintained connection with their brethren on the St Lawrence. About 1755 a colony from Caughnawaga formed a new settlement at St Regis, some distance farther up the St Lawrence. As the fur traders pushed their way westward from the great lakes they were accompanied by Caughnawaga hunters. As early as 1820 a considerable number of this tribe was incorporated with the Salish, while others found their way about the same period down to the mouth of Columbia River in Oregon, and N. even as far as Peace River in Athabasca. In the W. they are commonly known as Iroquois. Some of the Indians from St Regis also undertook these distant wanderings. In 1884 Caughnawaga had a population of 1,485, while St Regis (in Canada and New York) had about 2,075, and there were besides a considerable number from the 2 towns who were scattered throughout the W. In 1902 there were 2,017 on the Caughnawaga res. and 1,386 at St Regis, besides 1,208 on the St Regis reserve, N. Y. (J. N. B. H. )
  • Cayoosh Creek. A local name for two bodies of Upper Lillooet Indians of Salishan stock near the junction of Bridge and Fraser rs., Brit. Col. Population of one of the bodies in 1902, 34; of the other, also called Pashilqua, 15. Can. Ind. Aff. for 1901, pt. ii, 72.
  • Cexeninuth. A tribe or division about Queen Charlotte sd., Brit. Col.; possibly a Gyeksem gens of the Kwakiutl.
  • Cbaabl ( Tc!ā′fal}. A former Haida town on the N. w. coast of Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, Brit. Col. This seems to have been the Kow-welth of John Work, who assigned to it 35 houses with 561 inhabitants in 1836-41. Old people re call the names of 28 houses, but many more are said to have existed before a great fire which destroyed a large part of the town. In later times the people moved to New Gold Harbor, on the E. end of Maude Island, and thence into Skidegate. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 280, 1905.
  • Chaahl (T!ā′ał). A former Haida town on the E. coast of North Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, Brit. Col. It was occupied by a family of the same name who afterward moved to Alaska and settled at Howkan. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 281, 1905.
  • Chahtlmlelpil. A body of Salish of the old Victoria superintendency, Brit. Col.; pop. 104 in 1881. Can. Ind. Aff., 258, 1882.
  • Chaicclesaht  A Nootka tribe on Ououkinsh and Nasparte inlets, w. coast of Vancouver Island, numbering 105 in 1902. Acous is their principal town.
  • Chakkai. A Squawmish village com munity on the E. side of Howe sd., Brit. Col.
  • Chalkunts. A Squawmish village com munity on Gambier Island, Brit. Col.
  • Chants. A Squawmish village community on Burrard inlet, Brit. Col.
  • Chatelech (outside water) . The present town of the Seechelt Indians on Trail bay, at the neck of Seechelt penin., Brit. Col. As a permanent settlement it dates only from Bishop Durien’s time (ca. 1890), not having been occupied before for fear of the Lekwiltok.
  • Chebontes. A tribe mentioned in 1853 (Wessells in H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong., 3d sess., 32, 1857) as living s. E. of Tulare lake, Gal. Supposed from the location and association to be Mariposan, though possibly Shoshonean.
  • Chechelmen. A Squawmish village community on Burrard inlet, Brit. Col.
  • Chechilkok. A Squawmish village community at Seymour cr., Burrard inlet, Brit. Col.; pop. 44 in 1902.
  • Cheewack. A body of Salish under Williams Lake agency, Brit. Col.; pop. 9 in 1891, when the name last appears.
  • Chekoalch. A Squawmish village community on Burrard inlet, Brit. Col.
  • Chemanis. A Cowichan settlement on the E. coast of Vancouver Island , presumably on the bay of the same name.
  • Chentsithala. A Naskotin village on Fraser River, Brit. Col., at the mouth of Quesnelle River.
  • Cheshish. The principal village of the Muchalat, situated back of Bligh Island, Nootka sd., Vancouver Island. Can. Ind. Aff., 264, 1902.
  • Chetawe. A village of the Ntlakyapamuk, on the E. side of Eraser River, about 16½ m. above Yale, Brit. Col. Pop. 16 in 1897, the last time it was separately enumerated.
  • Chets (Tcēts). A Haida town, formerly occupied by the Chets-gitunai and Djushade, on an island at the mouth of Tsooskahli, Masset inlet, Brit. Col. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 281, 1905.
  • Chetsgitunai (Tcēts-gítAnā′-i, ‘Gituns of Chets Island’). A Haida family of the Eagle clan, so named from an island in the upper expansion of Masset inlet, Brit. Col., at the mouth of Tsooskahli, where they once lived. Afterward they moved to the mouth of Masset inlet. They formed one group with the Widjagitunai, Tohlka-gitunai, and Djushade. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 275, 1905.
  • Cheuek. A village of the Ntlakyapamuk on Eraser River , above Lytton, Brit. Col.
  • Chewas. A Squawmish village on the w. side of Howe sd., Brit. Col.
  • Chiakamish. A Squawmish village com munity on a creek of the same name, a tributary of Squawmisht River, Brit. Col.
  • Chiaktel. A Chilliwack village in s. Brit. Col.; pop. 43 in 1904.
  • Chichilek. A Squawmish village community on Burrard inlet, Brit. Col.
  • Chicoutimi. The name of a locality, the end of- smooth navigation of Saguenay River, Quebec, by which the Lake St John band of Montagnais was sometimes referred to (Jes. Rel. 1661, 13, 1858). The French formerly had a mission of the same name on the right bank of the Saguenay. In 1898 the Montagnais of L. St John numbered 404 and resided on a reservation at Pointe Bleue.
  • Chignecto (from sigunikt, foot cloth) A Micmac village in Nova Scotia in 1760. Frye (1760) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1st s., x, 115, 1809.
  • Chikauach. A Songish band at McNeill bay, s. end of Vancouver Island, Brit. Col.
  • Chilliwack. A Salish tribe on a river of the same name in British Columbia, now speaking the Cowichan dialect, though anciently Nooksak according to Boas. Pop. 313 in 1902. Their villages, mainly on the authority of Hill-Tout, are Atselits, Chiaktel, Kokaia, Shlalki, Skaialo, Skaukel, Skway, Skwealets, Stlep, Thaltelich, Tsoowahlie, and Yukweakwioose. The Can. Ind. Aff. Reports give Koquapilt and Skwah (distinct from Skway), and Boas gives Keles, which are not identifiable with any of the above.
  • Chinlak. A former village of the Tanotenne at the confluence of Nechaco and Stuart rs., Brit. Col., which had a flourishing population that the Tsilkotin practically annihilated in one night.
  • Chintagottine (people of the woods). A division of the Kawchodinneh, dwelling on Mackenzie River, Mackenzie Ter., Canada, N. of Ft Good Hope and between the river and Great Bear lake. Petitot often uses the term synonymously with Kawchodinneh.
  • Chuchunayha. A body of Okinagan, of the Similkameen group, in s. w. British Columbia; pop. 52 in 1901.
  • Chuckchuqualk (red place). A Shuswap village on North Thompson River, Brit. Col.; pop. 129 in 1902.
  • b (T!ŭ′uga, to go for cedar planks) . A Haida town of the Gunghetgitunai, near Houston Stewart channel and the abandoned town of Ninstints, Queen Charlotte Islands, Brit. Col. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 277, 1905.
  • Chukchukts. A Squawmish village community on the left bank of Squawmisht River, Brit. Col.
  • Chukeu (Tcuq!e-ū′ , mouth of the tide). A Haida town on the s. w. coast of Moresby Island, x. AV. Brit. Cal., said to have been so named from an inlet in and out of which the tide rushes with great force. It was occupied by the Sakikegawai, a family of Ninstints. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 277, 1905.
  • Cisco (Si′ska, uncle). A village of the Lytton band of Ntlakyapamuk on Fraser River , 8 m. below Lytton, Brit. Col.; pop. 32 in 1902.
  • Clahoose. A Salish tribe on Toba inlet, Brit, Col., speaking the Comox dialect; pop. 73 in 1904.
  • Clayoquot. A Nootka tribe living on Meares Island and Torfino inlet, Clayoquot sd., Vancouver Island; pop. 241 in 1904, having become reduced from about 1,100 in 60 years.
  • Clecksclocutsee. A former village 12 m. inland from Clayoquot town, on the w. coast of Vancouver Island Bulfinch in H. R. Doc. 43, 26th Cong., 1st sess., 2, 1840.
  • Clelikitte. An unidentified (Wakashan) tribe about Queen Charlotte sd., Brit. Col.
  • Clemclemalats. A Salish tribe speaking the Cowichan dialect and residing in Cowichan valley, Vancouver Island; pop. 140 in 1904.
  • Clickass. Said to have been a former Kaigani village on Prince of Wales Island. See Klinkwan.
  • Clocktoot. A body of Shuswap of Kamloops agency, Brit. Col.; pop. 194 in 1884.
  • Clo-oose. A Nitinat village at the mouth of Suwany River, s. w. coast of Vancouver Island; pop. 80 in 1902. Can. Ind. Aff., 264, 1902.
  • Colchopa. A body of Salish of Williams Lake agency, Brit. Col.; pop. 40 in 1889, the last time the name appears. Can. Ind. Aff. for 1889, 271.
  • Comox. An important coast Salish tribe on both sides of Discovery pas sage, between Chancellor channel and C. Mudge, Brit. Col. Their proper name, Çatlō′ltx, has been taken by Boas as the designation of one dialect of coast Salish, including, besides this, the Clahoose, Eeksen, Kakekt, Kaake, Tatpoos, Homaltko, and Sliammon. Pop. of the tribe 58 in 1904; of those speaking the dialect, about 300. (J. R. S.)
  • Contarea. One of the principal Huron villages in Ontario in the 17th century; situated near the present Lannigan’s lake, Tiny township. See Kontareahronon.
  • Cooptee. A Nootka winter village near the head of Nootka sd., w. coast of Vancouver Island.
  • Coquitlam. A coast Salish tribe speaking the Cowichan dialect and inhabiting Fraser valley just above the delta, in British Columbia. They owned no land, being practically slaves of the Kwantlen. Pop. 25 in 1904.
  • Cowichan. A group of Salish tribes speaking a single dialect and occupying the s. E. coast of Vancouver Island between Nonoos bay and Sanitch inlet, and the valley of lower Fraser River nearly to Spuzzum, Brit. Col. The various bands and tribes belonging to this group aggregated 2,991 in 1902. The following list of Cowichan tribes is based on information obtained from Boas: On Vancouver Island: Clemclemalats, Comiakin, Hellelt, Kenipsim, Kilpanlus, Koksilah, Kulleets, Lilmalche, Malakut, Nanaimo, Penelakut, Quamichan, Siccameen, Snonowas, Somenos, Tateke, and Yekolaos. On lower Fraser River Chehalis, Chilliwack, Coquitlam, Ewawoos, Katsey, Kelatl, Kwantlin, Matsqui, Musqueam, Nicomen, Ohamil, Pilalt, Popkum, Scowlitz, Siyita, Sewathen, Snonkweametl, Skawawalooks, Squawtits, Sumass, Tait, Tsakuam, and Tsenes. (J. R. S.)
  • Cowichan Lake. A local name for Nootka Indians who in summer live on a reservation at the N. end of Cowichan lake, s. Vancouver Island. There were only 2 there in 1904. Can. Ind. Aff., 1902, 1904.
  • Credit Indians. A Missisauga band formerly living on Credit River, at the w. end of L. Ontario. About 1850 they removed to Tuscarora, on Grand River, Ontario, by invitation of the Iroquois. Jones, Ojebway Inds., 211, 1861.
  • Cumshewa  A former Haida town at the N. entrance of Cumshewa inlet, Queen Charlotte Islands, Brit. Col. By the natives it was known as Hlkenul. It was almost entirely occupied by the Stawas-haidagai , q. v.  According to John Work’s estimate, 1836-41, there were then 20 houses in the place and 286 people. This agrees closely with that still given by Cumshewa people as the former number. Cumshewa was one of the last towns abandoned when all the Indians of this region went to Skidegate. Swanton, Cont. Haida, 279, 1905.


Hodge, Frederick Webb, Compiler. The Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office. 1906.

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