Collection: Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico

Tanoan Indians

Tanoan Family, Tanoan People, Tanoan Nation. A linguistic family consisting of the Tewa, Tano, Tigua, Jemez, and Piro groups of Pueblo Indians, who dwell or dwelt in various substantial villages on and near the Rio Grande in New Mexico.  Of the groups mentioned the Tano and Piro are extinct as tribes and the Jemez includes the remnant of the former inhabitants of Pecos.  Gatschet was of the belief that the Tanoan family is a remote branch of the Shoshonean, but thus far the relationship has not been definitively shown.

Missisauga Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Jones, Peter (Kahkewaquonaby, Kahkewagwonnaby). A mixed-blood Missisauga chief, missionary, and author; born Jan. 1, 1802, died June 29, 1856. His father was a white man of Welsh descent named Augustus Jones, who maintained the closest friendship with Brant during the latter’s life. Peter’s mother was Tuhbenahneeguay, daughter of Wahbanosay, a chief of the Missisauga on Credit r., at the extreme w. end of L. Ontario, where, on a tract of land known as Burlington heights, Peter and his brother John were born. He remained with his tribe, following their customs and accompanying them on their excursions, until his 16th year,

Seechelt Tribe

Seechelt Indians, Seechelt First Nation, Seechelt People (Si-‘ciatl). A Salish tribe on Jervis and Seecheltinlets, Nelson island, and the south part of Texada island, British Columbia. They speak a distinct dialect and are thought by Hill-Tout on physical grounds to be related to the Lillooet. Anciently there were 4 divisions or septs – Kunechin, Tsonai, Tuwanek, and Skaiakos – but at present all live in one town, called Chatelech, around the mission founded by Bishop Durieu, who converted them to Roman Catholicism. The Kunechin and Tsonai are said to be of Kwakiutl lineage. Pop. 236 in 1902, according to the Canadian Department

Quinaielt Tribe

Quinaielt Indians. A Salish tribe on Quinaielt river, Washington and along the coast between the Quileute and the Quaitso on the north (the latter of which probably formed a part of the tribe), and the Chehalis on the south.  Lewis and Clark described them in two divisions, the Calasthocle and the Quiniilt, with 100 and 1,000 population, respectively.  In 1909 they numbered 156, under the Puyallup school superintendency. For Further Study The following articles and manuscripts will shed additional light on the Quinaielt as both an ethnological study, and as a people. For their treaty with the United States, see

Poospatuck Tribe

Poospatuck Indians, Poospatuck Tribe, Poosepatuck Indians. Also called Uncachogee. One of the 13 tribes of Long Island, New York, probably subordinate to the Montauk. They occupied the south shore from Patchogue Island to the Shinnecock Country. In 1666 a reservation was ceded to their sachem, Tobaccus, on Forge river, a short distance above the town of Mastic, where a few mixed-bloods still survive, with no knowledge of their language or customs, on a state reservation of 50 acres. Elizabeth Joe, their woman sachem and last chief, died in 1832. In 1890 they numbered 10 families, governed by 3 trustees. For

Patchoag Tribe

Patchoag Indians (where they divide in two, referring to two streams forming one river – Trumbull). A tribe on the south coast of Long Island, New York, extending from Patchogue to Westhampton. Besides their principal village, bearing the same name, they had others at Fireplace, Mastic, Moriches, and Westhampton. The Connetquot Indians were a part of this tribe. The survivors are known as Poosepatuck. Connetquot Indians Described by Thompson 1Thompson, Long Island, 293, 1839 as a semi-tribe or family of the Patchoag tribe occupying in 1683 the east side of Connetquot River, about Patchogue, in Suffolk County, Long Island, New

Pequawket Tribe

Pequawket Indians (a name of disputed etymology, the most probable rendering, according to Gerard, being ‘at the hole in the ground,’ from pekwakik). A tribe of the Abnaki confederacy, formerly living on the headwaters of Saco River and about Lovell’s Pond, in Carroll County, New Hampshire, and Oxford County, Maine. Their principal village, called Pequawket, was about the present Fryeburg, Maine. The tribe is famous for a battle fought in 1725 near the village, between about 50 English under Capt. Lovewell and 80 Indians, the entire force of the tribe, under their chief, Pangus. Both leaders were killed, together with

Opelousa Tribe

Opelousa Indians (probably ‘black above’, i. e. ‘black hair’ or ‘black skull’). A small tribe formerly living in south Louisiana. It is probable that they were identical with the Onquilouzas of La Harps, spoken of in 1699 as allied with the Washa and Chaouacha, wandering near the seacoasts, and numbering with those two tribes 200 men. This would indicate a more southerly position than that in which they are afterward found, and Du Pratz, whose information applies to the years between 1718 and 1730, locates the Oqué-Loussas, evidently the same people, westward and above Pointe Coupée, rather too far to

Onathaqua Tribe

Onathaqua Indians (possibly intended for Ouathaqua). A tribe or village about Cape Cañaveral east coast of Florida, in constant alliance with the Calusa in 1564 (Laudionniére). Probably identical in whole or in part with the Ais tribe. Not to be confounded with Onatheaqua. Alternate Spellings: Oathkaqua – De Bry map (1591) in Le Moyne, Narr., Appleton trans., 1875. Onathqua – Laudionniére (1564) in French, Hist. Coll., Louisiana, n.s., 282, 1869 (possibly for Ouathaqua). Onothaca – Brackenridge, Louisiana, 84, 1814. Otchaqua – De l’Isle, map, 1700.

Grigra Tribe

Grigra Indians, Grigras. A French nickname and the only known name of a small tribe all ready incorporated with the Natchez confederacy in 1720; it was applied because of the frequent occurrences of grigra in their language and ethnic relations, but unless affiliated with the Tonica, the tribe was evidently distinct from every other, since, as indicated by the sound grigra, their language possessed an r.