Wishram Indians

Wishram Indians. From Wu’cxam, the name given them by the Yakima and Klickitat Indians.

Also called:

  • E-che-loot, by Lewis and Clark in 1806, from their own name.
  • Ila’xluit, their own name and from this called Tlakluit.

Wishram Connections. They belonged to the Chinookan stock, and spoke the same dialect as the Wasco.

Wishram Location. On the north side of Columbia River in Klickitat County.

Wishram Villages

  • Atatathlia itcagitkok, on a small island near Celilo Falls, or more likely Ten-Mile Rapids.
  • Chalaitgelit, a short distance east of The Dalles.
  • Gawilapchk, a winter village below The Dalles.
  • Gawishila, a fishing station above The Dalles.
  • Hladakhat, about 10 miles below The Dalles.
  • Hliluseltshlikh, below Big Eddy.
  • Kwalasints, opposite The Dalles.
  • Nayakkhachikh, a winter village below Gawilapchk.
  • Niukhtash, at Big Eddy.
  • Shabanahksh, 1 mile below Wishram (?).
  • Shgwaliksh, perhaps Klickitat, about 12 miles (?) below The Dalles.
  • Shikeldaptikh, about a half mile below The Dalles. Shkagech, below Crate’s Point.
  • Shkonana, opposite Crate’s Point. Shkukskhat, below The Dalles.
  • Tsapkhadidlit, a wintering place below Nayakkhachikh.
  • Waginkhak, below The Dalles and the lowest Tlakluit town on the river.
  • Wakemap, above Wishram.
  • Wasnaniks, below Skukskhat.
  • Wayagwa, above The Dalles, the easternmost town.
  • Wishram (properly called Nixlúidix’), about 5 miles above The Dalles.

Wishram Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were about 1,500 Wishram, but Spier and Sapir (1930) suggest 1,000 about 1800. The latter figure is the one given by Lewis and Clark in 1806. The census of 1910 returned 274, and in 1937, under the designation “Upper Chinook,” the United States Office of Indian Affairs gave 124.

Connection in which the Wishram Indians have become noted. A town in Klickitat County preserves the name of the Wishram.


Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953.

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