Canton Indian Asylum, 1924 Male Patients

In 1898, Congress passed a bill creating the only ‘Institution for Insane Indians’ in the United States. The Canton Indian Insane Asylum, South Dakota (sometimes called Hiawatha Insane Asylum) opened for the reception of patients in January, 1903.

Many of the inmates were not mentally ill. Native Americans risked being confined in the asylum for alcoholism, opposing government or business interests, or for being culturally misunderstood. A 1927 investigation conducted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs determined that a large number of patients showed no signs of mental illness. The asylum was closed in 1934. While open, more than 350 patients were detained there, in terrible conditions. At least 121 died.

Land was set aside for a cemetery, but the Indian Office decided that stone markers for graves would be an unwarranted expense. Today, the cemetery (121 names) is located in the middle of a golf course in Canton. No one knows the cause of death of the incarcerated or why they were even at the asylum. The National Park Service has recently added the cemetery to the National Register of Historic Places.

This page covers the male patients interred in Canton Asylum during the year of 1924.

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June 1924 Male Patients

Canton Indian Asylum, 1924 Male Patients

1Bear, FrankNavajoNavajoArizona
2Black Bull, JamesSiouxRosebudSouth Dakota
3Brown, JohnSiouxSanteeNebraska
4Carpenter, JosephSiouxCheyenneSouth Dakota
5Catron, KeeNavajoNavajoArizona
6Charley, CreepingPiuteNevadaNevada
7Clafflin, PeterMenomineeKeshenaWisconsin
8Cox, John CharlesOmahaOmahaNebraska
9Davis, GeorgeCreekMuskogeeOklahoma
10Dayea, WillieNavajoNavajoArizona
11Fairbanks, RichardChippewaLeach LakeMinnesota
12Francisco, ChicoPapagoSellsArizona
13Frenier, HenrySiouxCheyenneSouth Dakota
14Graves, AnsonChippewaRed LakeMinnesota
15Gray Blanket, JohnSiouxPine RidgeSouth Dakota
16Harrison, SteveSac and FoxSac and FoxOklahoma
17Hawk, CharleySiouxPine RidgeSouth Dakota
18Hayes, RobertChippewaTurtle MountainNorth Dakota
19Henry, JamesCreekMuskogeeOklahoma
20Juan, BenitoPapagoSellsArizona
21Kennedy, Alfred H.SiouxLower BruleSouth Dakota
22Kentuck, PeterHoopaHoopa ValleyCalifornia
24Leve Leve, EarlWalapaiTruxton CanonArizona
25Lucas, AnselmoPapagoSellsArizona
26McCarter, WattCherokeeMuskogeeOklahoma
27McEwinn, JoeCherokeeMuskogeeOklahoma
28Mahkimetass, Earl F.MonomineeKeshenaWisconsin
29Marlow, GeorgeSiouxSissetonSouth Dakota
30Memdoza, JuanPapagoSellsArizona
31Mitchell, WilliePotawatomiPotawatomiKansas
32Moccasin Top, OscarSiouxPine RidgeSouth Dakota
33Monroe, JamesChippewaRed LakeMinnesota
34Red Rock, BenjaminSiouxPine RidgeSouth Dakota
35Ree, AmosSiouxYanktonSouth Dakota
36Richards, AlfredChippewaTurtle MountainNorth Dakota
37Roberts, HenryChippewaRed LakeMinnesota
38Romero, JamesSiouxPine RidgeSouth Dakota
39Root, JackChippewaLa PointeWisconsin
40Ruby. ThomasPimaPimaArizona
41Smith, MattChemehueveColorado RiverArizona
42Stands by him, LukeSiouxRosebudSouth Dakota
43Sweet Medicine, JacobNorthern CheyenneTongue RiverMontana
44Turpin, PeterChippewaWhite EarthMinnesota
45Two TeethSiouxCrow CreekSouth Dakota
46Wauketch, EdwardMenomineeKeshenaWisconsin
47Wauketch, SeymourMenomineeKeshenaWisconsin
48Wolfe, JoeCherokeeCherokeeNorth Carolina
49Wolfe, RoyUnknownTahlequahOklahoma
50Zimmerman, AlexSiouxCheyenneSouth Dakota


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