Melungeon DNA Study – Genetic Evidence

Compared to the sophistication of genetics in the second decade of the 21st century, Melungeon DNA testing in the 1990s was rather simplistic. Brent Kennedy based his primary genetic proof on a 1990 study of blood samples from 177 Melungeon descendants taken in 1969. 1 It is now known that DNA samples can be contaminated by contact by other persons with the sample, or even DNA attached to moisture in condensed human breath. There is no way of knowing the procedures of the nurse, who took the blood samples or even her own ancestry.

The geneticist, who carried out the above tests, stated that “The results were consistent with their belief that they were Portuguese.” 2Among the populations showing no significant differences with the Melungeons were the Galician area of Spain and Portugal, Canary Islands, southern Italy, North Africa, Malta, Turkey and Cyprus.” The geneticist reported that the Melungeon DNA showed a 10% similarity to Native American DNA. He did not say which Native American tribe or that if he was absolutely certain that the Native Americans sampled carried DNA from other ethnic groups. The geneticist also stated that the Melungeon DNA showed no similarity with Sub-Saharan African DNA.

Anthropologists and geneticists were, in particular, puzzled by what they thought was non-Indigenous DNA showing up in the Melungeons of eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. The Native American DNA component of the Melungeon samples showed “a significant genetic relationship to certain Indian populations in South America and Cuba. 2 Many anthropologists interpreted this to mean that some ancestors of the Melungeons, probably African slaves, had lived first in these regions and intermarried with local Indians, before moving to the Appalachians. Critics of Kennedy’s book stated that because the 1990 genetic study listed Caribbean indigenous DNA in Melungeons, this was proof that the lab work was inaccurate.

Recent anthropological studies by the People of One Fire Native American research alliance provide an alternative explanation to that made in 1990. 3 De Soto visited a Taino-Arawak province on the Ocmulgee River named Toa in March of 1540. Toa was also the name of a Taino province in Puerto Rico. A Taino stela was found in the early 1900s on a hilltop shrine overlooking the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta. 4 It portrays a deity, identical to those portrayed in caves around Arecibo, Puerto Rico.

Seventeenth century French and Dutch texts state that prior to the European Contact Period, there was an invasion of Caribbean peoples into the southern Appalachian Mountains. In the 1600s some Caribbean peoples still lived in the Southern Appalachians, but they were now vassals of the Apalache.

The human genome was not completely deciphered until the year 2000. There has been an explosion of knowledge about the genetic history of mankind since then. If a scientist in 2009 postulated that homo sapiens mated with Neanderthals, he would have been ostracized as a heretic and quack. Now that mixing of species is accepted as fact. The understanding of the past is changing constantly. Interpretation of any genetic tests must be accompanied by the knowledge that the test results might be different within a few months or a year.

In 2002 a more sophisticated DNA analysis of Melungeon families in Wise, VA and Hancock County, TN was completed. The percentages of Mediterranean populations were not as high as expected, but were still there. Also, the European DNA test markers were grouped together as a whole. A Melungeon ancestor from Iberia was lumped together with a Melungeon ancestor from England. Afterward, Brent Kennedy issued the following statement:

“In addition to Native American (approximately 5% of the sample), African (approximately 5%) and European (approximately 83% of the sample, but representing Europeans from north to south), the study also showed approximately 7% of the samples matching populations in Turkey, Syria and northern India. In other words, the surviving genes from Middle Eastern and East Indian ancestors are in equal proportion to those of Native Americans and Africans. My gut feeling is that the original, seventeenth-century percentages of all three groups (i.e., African, Native American, and Middle Eastern/East Indian) were higher than what we’re seeing today. Time, admixture, and out-movement of some of our darker cousins into other minority groups have likely lowered the genetic traces of their earlier presence. But enough of them were there to still be traceable among the Melungeons of today. The long discounted Mediterranean and Middle Eastern heritages are irrefutably there.” 5

In 2005 a Melungeon organization and the Family Tree DNA lab in Houston, TX entered into a partnership to thoroughly explore the genetic profiles of Melungeons. 6 Melungeon leaders felt that the never-ending hostility to Melungeon research in some segments of the academic communities prejudiced general genetic research.

A cartoon mocking the typical Melungeon.
A cartoon mocking the typical Melungeon.

The Family Tree DNA lab is currently sponsoring a Melungeon Core Y DNA Project. The Melungeon Y DNA Project is a study of males who have proven known Melungeon ancestors, according to old records, and agreed on by some of the top Melungeon researchers. The goal of the project is to obtain a broader understanding of the Melungeon heritage. Previous genetic studies have focused on the maternal DNA kits (MtDNA). Historians have correctly pointed out that the Melungeons probably began as the offspring from males and females of different races. Therefore, studies of paternal and maternal DNA will probably give very different results.

One of the more interesting results of the Melungeon y-chromosome study is the appearance of the Kohenim Modal Haplotype. It is associated with Tribes of Aaron and Levi, who before the Jewish Diaspora in 79 AD furnished all priests for the Temple in Jerusalem. An unexpectedly high percentage of Melungeon male descendants carry this gene. To be precise, the Jewish heritage was not surprising to Melungeon researchers, but was to those historians who believe the official version of Appalachian history. According to orthodox history, the Southern Appalachians were first settled in the period between 1770 and 1838 (Cherokee Removal) by English speaking settlers, who were predominantly Scottish, Ulster Scots, English, Irish and German. What genetics cannot answer is WHEN people with Jewish ancestors settled the Southern Appalachians.

DNA Consultants, Inc. carried out a DNA study of 40 self-identified Melungeon individuals. 7 The study found that the individuals were primarily of western European and African heritage. Persons tested had relatively small levels of Asiatic (Native American) DNA or none at all. Of course, the Spanish and Portuguese are western Europeans. The peoples of the eastern Mediterranean share many DNA indicators with those of the western Mediterranean basin.

There is also a historical caveat to consider when genetically evaluating modern Melungeon descendants. Eyewitness accounts and family histories from the late 1700s and early 1800s are filled with stories of inhabitants with substantial Native American features migrating OUT of the Appalachians. They moved west with the frontier or south to communities containing many Native American descendants. Many Creek families in Alabama, Georgia and Florida have always been puzzled by the stories of ancestors, who left North Carolina to live in predominantly Creek communities. This is because the State of North Carolina tells the public that only Cherokee Indians lived in their mountains.

The author’s own family experienced similarly motivated out-migrations. A sudden eruption of persecution in their community of mixed-blood Creek families in the early 20th century caused those, who looked the most “Creek” to migrate to communities where they blended in.   My grandmother’s oldest half-brother (28 years older) took a Creek allotment in Oklahoma in 1905. A full brother closer to her age moved to Tampa, Florida in the 1930s, where there were many residents with black hair and tan skin.

Forty persons out of a probable population of 250,000 is hardly a statistically reliable sample. Furthermore, the Melungeons were scattered across about 400 miles of mountainous terrain. The isolation of mountain valleys before the late 1800s would have insured that individual Melungeon communities would have varying ancestries. Nevertheless, the anti-Kennedy faction in academia “hyped up” results of the DNA tests in order to prove that they were right and Kennedy was wrong. The national media jumped onto the band wagon to fan the opinions of a few academicians and individuals into a “national controversy.” The purpose was to increase TV viewership and newspaper readership, not the seeking of truth. The journalists involved knew little about genetics and so focused on the “opinions” of individuals to imply that they represented all Melungeons.

In 2012, DNA Consultants issued this report about its autosomal DNA study of Melungeons:

“After many years in development, the results of a DNA ancestry project enrolling 40 Melungeons were published and made public, marking the end of an attempt to solve the mystery of a Southern U.S. ethnic group with autosomal DNA.

Seeming to lay to rest an old controversy in American history about Melungeons, the scientific data supporting a genetic mixture of white, American Indian and Sub-Saharan African were placed online today by the organizers of DNA Consultants’ Melungeon DNA Project.

Any media coverage in 2012 purporting to show Melungeons as shocked by evidence of sub-Saharan African DNA conflicts with this evidence, but also with more than a hundred years of testimony from Melungeons themselves.” 8


DNA, Melungeon,

Thornton, Richard. The Appalachian Colonists from the Mediterranean Basin. Digital Rights Copyright 2013 by

Search Military Records - Fold3
  1. Kennedy, Brent, The Melungeons, The Resurrection of a Proud People, Macon: Mercer University Press, 1997; pp. 147-149.[]
  2. Guthrie, James L. Melungeon Comparisons of Gene Distribution to Those of Worldwide Populations, Tennessee Anthropologist, 15/1 (Spring 1990).[][]
  3. The Paracus, Taino and Calusa Peoples of Georgia & South Carolina, People of One Fire, 2012.[]
  4. Thornton, Richard. Experts solve mystery of ancient stone monument near Atlanta. 11 April 2011.[]
  5. Melungeon Heritage Association. 2002 and 2010 DNA studies confirmed tri-racial roots of Melungeons. 25 July 2012.[]
  6. Campbell, Helen. The Legend of a Mountain Girl and her Baby. Archived version.[]
  7. Panther-Yates, Donald & Hirschman, Elizabeth Caldwell,  Towards a Genetic Profile of Melungeons in Southern Appalachia, September 16, 2010[]
  8. DNAConsultants. Melungeon Riddle Solved by Autosomal DNA Project. 16 September 2010.[]

17 thoughts on “Melungeon DNA Study – Genetic Evidence”

  1. Basically people move around a lot and intermarry a lot. Sometimes you never know all the family secrets. It’s uber interesting , but in the end folks are folks. God loves em all

  2. As someone who would accept whatever ethnicity came out of these tests, I find it extremely odd that nearly 16% of My DNA seems to be Sephardic Jewish, in addition to Italian, Iberian, which usually puts my DNA at on various tests anywhere from about 20% to 30% with no ancestors from these regions.

    My family is Southern Appalachian on all sides, all sides claim to be Black Irish and all sides came over mainly in the 1600’s England. I have had quite a few genetic matches to British Romanichal’s usually at 6cm to 10cm on mainly chromosome 19 of mine, which is 16.4% S. Asian. Why is there no emphasis on the possibility that Gypsies were in colonial America in the 1600’s?
    Surely the Gypsies who took the southern most route in N. Africa would reflect a lot of the Iberian, N. African, Sephardic DNA present in all sides of my family.

    1. I am finding strange ancestries, too. Sephardic, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Armenian, Georgian (Russian) Jew. My roots are with the original melungeon John Goings also known as João Gonwelão who arrived aboard the White Lion in 1619 at Jamestown Colony. My genetics are at 23 and Me and my Gedmatch kits is # ZK6526531.

      1. This is my Gedmatch A003489
        We match 5.8 and 9.8 cm on chromosome 19 and we match 5.2 on another chromosome… we are definitely related somewhere, I seemed to be related to a lot of Goings but I cant find a goings, needless to say there are a few ancestors I can’t trace either

      2. My wife, Helen Castle Altman, is descended from John Bunch and a lot more in the Melungeon areas of KY, TN, VA. She matches you as well. Her gedmatch number is YN3334298. We found this searching for her Portuguese and East African roots. Thanks!

  3. I read a very interesting article about the fact that Native American and even other lineages don’t usually show in DNA tests because people from those population groups have to test and have not that frequently and so there is nothing to show that we are related to those people. I can send a link if you want to read it. I use this site and the following three free sites; findagrave, wikitree, and familysearch with great success tracing my roots. Good luck with your searches.

  4. I was born in Hawkins county, as were all my people. My dna was a surprise. A 1/16 African, turk, portugese, jewish etc. My dna connects to Collins, Goins, Williams, Roberts…all of the core names. Eastern Tennessee in my youth…I am almost 80…was a very “white” area. Anyone not so really stood out. I’m convinced the area is so intermarried we are all kin!

    1. Hi Trudi , I have been trying to trace my side and I was told I have Cherekee blood line going back to my
      5th great grandparents. The reason I am answering your post is I have a large side of my family with the last name Hawkins they owned Hawkins Cemetery . Do you know anything about the family or related some how ? Thank you , Anthony Frost

  5. My Native American was less than 1% but I found out they were from Kennewick, Washington but don’t know which tribe yet and I’m not doing this to join a tribe I was just always told we had “Indian” in us as many African Americans are told. I really believe many of the Native Americans were already African so therefore African wouldn’t show up twice on these DNA test and this is why we are testing low…the Native Americans that we are related to were the African Native Americans.

    1. Jennifer L. Leidig

      we are family lol. I too found out I am related to The Kennewick man he was one of the first people in the Americas, look him up and the Clovis people. it’s quite interesting, isn’t it? I got less than 1 % too and less than 1% percent Jewish and 1.6 % African and like 10 european+.

  6. My family i found out was from tennesse and sone north or south carolina.i dont think they saw themselves as mulungeon but beige tan people marrying other tan or white people,my grand dad said it was a subculture,so basically this is what it is in my family,say your native american you marry a mulatto woman,then they have kids,marry a arabian,then there kids marry say part jewish and black ,they there kids marry a sicilian…that are more beige tan people in the world than was q color thing .if they were just black and white more would have lighter hair or eyes like say mariah carey..tho she is part latina.most these people werent portugese i believe but have same mixture as puerto rican or cuban latino,but the south didnt want recognize latinos,on some census they called black or mulatto.these mulungeons are part latino,native,middle eastern,african and white probably irish or romania,lebanese,turks

  7. My ancestors on my mother’s side came in the past 200 years from eastern Tennessee and what became southern West Virginia. I am white, my DNA testing shows traces of Native American, Sub Saharan African and Iberian peninsula ancestry. Could I have a Melungeon ancestor?

  8. My wife is from some of the most documented long running families in southern Appalachian history. Her dna has come back 2% Senegal and 1% Jewish.
    This seems impossible as they have geneologies in America (Hancock County, TN) going back since the 1600’s. (Heugonots & Irish predomanantly). No native american dna exists.

    1. Everybody in America needs to step back and take a deep breath before tackling this history vs. dna question because a lot of the stories we have been taught are just that: stories, myths, and fabrications that were created in the 18th & 19th centuries to support a white-supremacist view of the world and to justify taking land from the indigenous peoples of North and South America. A good place to start might be Dennis Stanford’s and Bruce Bradley’s ACROSS ATLANTIC ICE: THE ORIGIN OF AMERICA’S CLOVIS CULTURE published in 2012. One of the coolest things about all this new technology at our disposal is the fact that we can now explore places that have been totally inaccessible up until now, like the ocean and its plethora of underwater caves. If your education was anything like mine, you were taught that the ancestors of America’s indigenous peoples came from Asia. You and I believed this, because, after all, who were we to refute “scientific” evidence. The fact of the matter is there has never been ANY scientific evidence to support this theory and all the evidence that is coming in now, based on recent archaeological finds as well as dna data, points to a massive migration of peoples from what is now the Sahara Desert to the Americas during and after the last Ice Age. Another good read is 1392 (that’s the title), a history of one Chinese emperor’s exploration of what is now California one hundred years before any Europeans arrived in the Caribbean. We also have the Waldseemuller map, which “we” recently purchased for $4 million dollars, on display in the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. This 1507 map depicts the West Coast of South America accurately within 75 miles 6 years before Vasco da Gama “discovered” the Pacific Ocean. What our scientists and historians like to do when they encounter information that contradicts the well-worn national narrative is simply call that new information an “enigma” and march on repeating the same old lies, thereby obstructing any real research that would further our knowledge of world history and human migrations. There are other good books on the market that could enlighten us as a nation, but experience has shown that any new evidence that supports any theory of an African presence in North America before the Europeans got here is going to be labeled suspicious at best; most likely it will be ignored or ridiculed.
      I, too, have had my dna tested, and instead of the Native American genes I was expecting, all this weird North African Mediterranean Coast and Eastern European Jewish “stuff” turned up.
      I think the jury is still out on what kind of dna constitutes a Native American and what doesn’t. And I believe that the folks who are doing the dna testing have their own ethnological ax to grind, which should be taken into consideration.

      1. If you look at the ancient copper mines of lake Michigan and Canada, and the vast amounts of copper mined from here carbon dating to the period of the Bronze Age of the Mediterranean, you may find the clues you seek. The world’s top miners of copper from 5000 BC and well into 2000 BC were from Cyprus, near Turkey and Syria, and off in western Spain near Huelva and Cadiz. Toss in a maritime fleet of the Phoenicians, based out of Lebanon and Tunis, North Africa (future home of Carthage, one of the richest civilizations of antiquity) and you now have a way to transport Jewish, Spanish and North African DNA to the rich copper mines of North America. Check out the DNA record of the tribes living to the north that migrated southward to see what you may find. Best of luck.

      2. I don’t see a reference for 1392. I think you mean 1421: The Year China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies

      3. Jennifer L. Leidig

        i believe we all should use multiple sites I have and thanks to ged match I now knw, I am a descendant of the Kennewick man whom most know is among the Clovis people the first group that came across the land bridge. I am also a Melungeon its quite cool to know that.

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