Topic: Muskogean

Okelousa Indians

Okelousa Tribe: Meaning “black water.” Okelousa Connections. The associations of this tribe were mainly with Muskhogean peoples and this fact, coupled with the Muskhogean name, indicates their linguistic affiliations with a fair degree of certainty. Okelousa Location. The Okelousa moved about considerably. The best determined location is the one mentioned by Le Page du Pratz (1758), on the west side of the Mississippi back of and above Pointe Coupee. (See Mississippi.) Okelousa History. After De Soto reached the principal Chickasaw town, the head chief came to him, January 3, 1541, “and promptly gave the Christians guides and interpreters to go

Bayogoula Indians

Bayogoula Tribe: Meaning “bayou people,” either from their location or from the fact that their tribal emblem was the alligator. Bayogoula Connections. Their language was of the southern Muskhogean division, not far removed from Houma and Choctaw. Bayogoula Location. Near the present Bayou Goula, in Iberville Parish. Bayogoula History. Unless this tribe was the Pishenoa encountered by Tonti in 1686 and not mentioned subsequently, it was first visited by Iberville in 1699. It then occupied one town with the Mugulasha. In the winter of 1699-1700 the Bayogoula suffered severely from a surprise attack of the Houma. In the spring of

Avoyel Indians

Avoyel Tribe: The name signifies probably “people of the rocks,” referring to flint and very likely applied because they were middlemen in supplying the Gulf coast tribes with flint. Also called: Little Taensa, so-called from their relationship to the Taensa. Tassenocogoula, name in the Mobilian trade language, meaning “flint people.” Avoyel Connections. The testimony of early writers and circumstantial evidence render it almost certain that the Avoyel spoke a dialect of the Natchez group of the Muskhogean linguistic family. Avoyel Location. In the neighborhood of the present Marksville, La. Avoyel History. The Avoyel are mentioned first by Iberville in the

Acolapissa Indians

Acolapissa Tribe: Meaning “those who listen and see,” indicating possibly “borderers” or “scouts.” Also called: Aquelou pissas, by Le Page du Pratz (1758, 2: 219). Cenepisa, by La Salle (in Margry, 1875-86,1: 564). Colapissas, in 1699 by Penicaut (in French, 1869, p. 38). Coulapissas, in 1700 by Sauvole (in Margry 1875-86, 4: 462). Equinipichas, by Sauvole (in French, 1851, 3: 225). Kinipissa, by Tonti (in Margry, 1875-86; 1: 604). Kolapissas, in 1700 by Gravier (in French, 1875, p. 88). Acolapissa Connections. The Acolapissa belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family and evidently spoke a language closely related to Choctaw and Chickasaw.

Houma Indians

Houma Tribe: Literally “red,” but evidently an abbreviation of saktcihomma, “red crawfish.” Houma Connections. They spoke a Muskhogean language very close to Choctaw, and it is practically certain from the fact that their emblem was the red crawfish that they had separated from the Chakchiuma. Houma Location. The earliest known location of the Houma was on the east side of the Mississippi River some miles inland and close to the Mississippi-Louisiana boundary line, perhaps near the present Pinckney, Miss. (See also Louisiana) Houma Villages. At one time the people of this tribe were distributed between a Little Houma village 2

Napochi Indians

Napochi Tribe: If connected with Choctaw Napissa, as seems not unlikely, the name means “those who see,” or “those who look out,” probably equivalent to “frontiersmen.” Napochi Connection. They belonged to the southern division of the Muskhogean proper, and were seemingly nearest to the Choctaw. Napochi Location. Along Black Warrior River. Napochi History. The tribe appears first in the account of an attempt to colonize the Gulf States in 1559 under Don Tristan de Luna, part of his forces being sent inland from Pensacola Bay came to Coosa in 1560 and assisted its people against the Napochi, whom they claimed

Sawokli Indians

Sawokli Tribe: Possibly meaning “raccoon people,” in the Hitchiti language, and, while this is not absolutely certain, the okli undoubtedly means “people.” Sawokli Connections. The Sawokli belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic stock and to the subdivision called Atcik-hata. (See Apalachicola.) Sawokli Location. The best known historic location was on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of the present Barbour County, Ala. (See Florida and Georgia.) Sawokli Villages Hatchee tcaba, probably on or near Hatchechubbee Creek, in Russell County, Ala. Okawaigi, on Cowikee Creek, in Barbour County, Ala. Okiti-yagani, in Clay County, Ga., not far from Fort Gaines. Sawokli, several different

Tohome Indians

Tohome Tribe: Said by Iberville to mean “little chief,” but this is evidently an error. Tohome Connections. They belonged to the southern branch of the Muskhogean linguistic group, their closest relatives being the Mobile. Tohome Location. About MacIntosh’s Bluff on the west bank of Tombigbee River, some miles above its junction with the Alabama. Tohome Subdivisions. Anciently there were two main branches of this tribe, sometimes called the Big Tohome and Little Tohome, but the Little Tohome are known more often as Naniaba, “people dwelling on a hill,” or “people of the Forks;” the latter would be because they were

Koasati Indians

Koasati Tribe: Meaning unknown; often given as Coosawda and Coushatta, and sometimes abbreviated to Shati. Koasati Connections. They belonged to the southern section of the Muskhogean linguistic group, and were particularly close to the Alabama. Koasati Location. The historic location of the Koasati was just below the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers to form the Alabama and on the east side of the latter, where Coosada Creek and Station still bear the name. (See also Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.) Koasati Villages. Two Koasati towns are mentioned as having existed in very early times, one of which

Tuskegee Indians

Tuskegee Tribe: Meaning unknown, but apparently containing the Alabama term taska, “warrior.” Tuskegee Connections. The original Tuskegee language is unknown but it was probably affiliated with the Alabama, and hence with the southern branch of Muskhogean. Tuskegee Location. The later and best known location of this tribe was on the point of land between Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, but in 1685 part of them were on the Chattahoochee River near modern Columbus and the rest were on the upper Tennessee near Long Island. (See also Oklahoma and Tennessee) Tuskegee Villages. None are known under any except the tribal name of