Twana Indians

Twana Indians. Said to signify “a portage,” referring to that between the upper end of Hoods Canal and the headwaters of Puget Sound. Also called:

  • Tu-a’d-hu, own name.
  • Skokomish, from the name of a principal division.
  • Wi’lfa Ampa’fa ami’m, Luckiamute-Kalapuya name.

Twana Connections. The Twana constituted one dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan stock.

Twana Location. On both sides of Hoods Canal. Later they were placed on Skokomish Reservation.

Twana Subdivisions and Villages

Eels (1877) gave the following:

  • Kolsid, on Quilcene and Dabop Bays.
  • Skokomish, around Annas Bay and the drainage area of Skokomish River.
  • Soatlkobsh, on both sides of the canal from Seabeck and Oak Head to Port Gamble and Squamish Harbor opposite.

Smith (1941) lists the following villages:

  • Habha’b, at Eldon on the Canal at the mouth of the Hammerhammer River.
  • Li’liwap, at Lilliwap on the Canal.
  • Skoko’bsh, at the mouth of the Skokomish River.
  • Tule’lalap, at the east branch of the Canal at the mouth of Mission Creek.
  • Two towns at Duckabush and Brinnon.

Twana Population. Mooney (1928) gives the Twana, Skokomish, and Squaxon together a population of 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 they were estimated to total about 265. The census of 1910 gave 61 Twana and 195 Skokomish, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs returned 206 Skokomish in 1937.


Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953.

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