Pueblo Indians

Pueblo Indians. A general name for those Indians in the Southwest who dwelt in stone buildings as opposed to the tribes living in more fragile shelters, pueblo being the word for “town” or “village” in Spanish. It is not a tribal or even a stock name, since the Pueblos belonged to four distinct stocks. Following is the classification of Pueblos made by F. W. Hodge (1910) except that the Kiowa have since been connected with the Tanoans and a few minor changes have been introduced:

  • Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock:
    • Tiwa Group
      • Isleta Pueblo
      • Isleta del Sur Pueblo (Mexicanized)
      • Sandia Pueblo
      • Taos Pueblo
      • Picuris Pueblo
    • Jemez Group
      • Jemez Pueblo
      • Pecos Pueblo (extinct)
    • Piro Group
      • Senecu Pueblo
      • Senecu del Sur Pueblo (Mexicanized)
    • Tewa Group
      • Northern Division:
        • Nambe Pueblo
        • Tesuque Pueblo
        • San Ildefonso Pueblo
        • San Juan Pueblo
        • Santa Clara Pueblo
        • Pojoaque Pueblo (recently extinct)
        • Hano Pueblo
      • Southern Division
        • Tano Pueblo (practically extinct)
  • Keresan linguistic stock
    • Eastern Group
      • San Felipe Pueblo
      • Santa Ana Pueblo
      • Sia Pueblo
      • Cochiti Pueblo
      • Santo Domingo Pueblo
    • Western Group
      • Acoma Pueblo
      • Laguna Pueblo and outlying villages
  • Zufiian linguistic stock
    • Zuni Group
      • Zuni Pueblo and its outlying villages.
  • Shoshonean linguistic stock, part of the Uto-Aztecan stock
    • Hopi Group
      • Walpi Pueblo
      • Sichomovi Pueblo
      • Mishongnovi Pueblo
      • Shipaulovi Pueblo
      • Shongopovi Pueblo
      • Oraibi Pueblo

The Pueblo Indians in New Mexico are being considered at length under the following heads: Jemez, Keresan Pueblos, Piro Pueblos, Tewa Pueblos, Tiwa Pueblos, and Zuni; the Hopi are considered under Arizona. (See also Colorado, Nevada, and Texas.)

Connection in which they have become noted. The Pueblo Indians have become famous from the fact that, unlike all of their neighbors, they lived in communal stone houses and in stone dwellings perched along the canyon walls; from their peculiar customs and ceremonies, such as the Snake Dance; and from their real and supposed connection with the builders of the stone ruins with which their country and neighboring parts of the Southwest abound. In recent years they have been subjects of interest to artists and writers and an attempt has been made to base a style of architecture upon the type of their dwellings. They are of historic interest as occupants of one of the two sections of the United States first colonized by Europeans.


Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953.

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