Important Dates in Indian History

Important Eras And Dates Interesting Events In Indian History 544-1863.

A. D.
544The Toltecs, according to ancient traditions, commenced their migration from the north to the vale of Anahuac, or Mexico.
648The Toltecs arrived at Tollantzinco, in Anahuac.
982Eirek the Red discovered Greenland, and planted a colony there.
985Biarni Heriulfson discovered the American coast.
1008Thorfmn Karlsefni planted a colony in New England.
1051The Toltecs destroyed by a pestilence.
1070The barbarous nation of the Chichimecas succeeded the Toltecs.
1170The Nahuatlacas, or Seven Tribes, among whom were the Aztecs, commenced their migration from the north.
1325The Aztecs founded the city of ancient Mexico.
1492Oct. 12. Columbus landed at Guanahani, or Cat Island, on his first voyage of discovery.
1498Columbus first touched the shores of South America, and held intercourse with the Arawaks.
1500Jan. 26. Vicente Pinzon landed near Cape St. Augustine, at the eastern extremity of South America, and took formal possession.
1501Portuguese discoverers, under Vespucius, landed at Brazil.
1509Juan de Solis slain by the natives at the estuary of La Plata.
1518L. Velasquez de Ayllon landed on the Carolina coast in search of Indian slaves and gold.
1519Nov. 8. Cortez entered the city of Mexico, and held his first inter view with the Emperor Montezuma
1520Night of July 1. The “Noche Triste,” on which the Spaniards made their disastrous retreat from the city of Mexico.
1521Towards the close of May, the Spaniards, with reinforcements, having again advanced upon the Aztec capital, laid close siege to it.
1521Aug. 13. Gautimozin, successor to Montezuma, was taken prisoner, and the city fell into the power of the Spanish invaders.
1524Nov. Francisco Pizarro sailed on his first expedition to Peru.
1528Expedition of Pamphilo de Narvaez to Florida, with a party of four hundred men. About forty horses were landed the first ever seen by the natives.
1531Pizarro landed and established himself in Peru.
1532Nov. 15. Entry of Pizarro into Caxamalca, and first interview of his officers with the Inca, Atahuallpa.
1532Nov. 16. Horrible massacre of the Indians, and seizure of the Inca.
1533Aug. 29. Atahuallpa infamously put to death, by the garrotte.
1533Nov. Entry of the Spaniards into Cuzco, the capital of Peru.
1535Almagro’s expedition into Chili.
1538May. Fernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay. The bloody scenes attendant upon the conquest of Florida ensued.
1540Pedro Valdivia s invasion of Chili.
1552His progress through Arauco.
1553Dec. 3. Great battle between the Spaniards and the Araucanians, in which the latter, under Caupolican, gained a signal victory.
1555The Spanish town of Conception attacked and destroyed by the Araucanians, under Lautaro.
1556Lautaro surprised and slain by Villagran.
1558Expedition of Garcia de Mendoza to the archipelago of Chiloe.
1562French refugees settled peaceably among the Indians on the St. John’s river, Florida.
1584Amidas and Barlow opened a friendly intercourse with the Virginia Indians.
1585Those belonging to Sir Richard Grenville’s expedition to Virginia commenced outrages and hostilities, which resulted in the destruction of several successive colonies.
1595Raleigh entered the Orinoco, and held intercourse with the natives.
1598Nov. Great rising of the Chilians, under the Toqui Paillamachu: expulsion of the Spaniards from the Araucanian territory.
1606Bartholomew Gosnoll’s expedition to Virginia, with which the celebrated Captain John Smith was connected.
1608June. Smith s exploration of the Chesapeake; his first meeting with the Massawomekes, or Iroquois
1608In the autumn of this year, Powhatan was formally crowned the regalia having been sent over from England.
1608Dec. Powhatan s conspiracy against Smith and his party, and their preservation by Pocahontas
1613Pocahontas seized and detained by Captain Argall
1613April . Marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe.
1614Thomas Hunt landed at Monhegan, and enticed twenty-four Indians on board his vessel, whom he carried to Europe as slaves.
1617Pocahontas died, at Gravesend, in England
1618Powhatan died.
1620Nov. 9. The May-Flower arrived
1620” Dec. 8. First skirmish of the N. England settlers with the natives.
1620Dec. 22. Their landing at Plymouth.
1621March 22. Treaty between the Plymouth settlers and Massasoit.
1622March 22. Great massacre of the Virginia settlers by the Indians, set on by Opechancanough: three hundred and forty-seven killed.
1625Great battle with the Caribs on the island of St. Christopher,two thousand of that nation destroyed.
1628Firearms extensively diffused among the Indians of New England, by Dutch traders and one Thomas Morton.
1637The Pequod War broke out: siege of the English garrison at Saybrook.
1637June 5. A little before day the Pequod fort attacked and destroyed; barbarous destruction of women and children.
1640Peace concluded between the Spanish colonists under Francisco Zuniga, and the Araucanians.
1643Miantonimo put to death by, Uncas.
1644Second Virginia massacre, planned by Opechancanough
1653The nation of the Eries exterminated by the Iroquois.
1662Philip, or Metacomet, succeeded his brother Alexander.
1665Peace again concluded between the Spaniards and Araucanians.
1675June 24, O. S. First blood shed in King Philip s war.
1675Dec. 19. Destruction of the Narragansett fort
1676Aug. 12. Philip killed by an Indian of Captain Church s party.
1676Aug. Capture of Annawon, by Church, and end of the war.
1682Dec. First treaty of William Penn with the Delawares.
1688Invasion of Canada, and attack on Montreal by the Iroquois
1710First deputation of Iroquois chiefs to the court of Queen Anne.
1711Sept. 22. Massacre of whites in North Carolina by the Tuscaroras.
1713March 26. The Tuscarora fort on Tar river destroyed by Colonel Moore eight hundred prisoners taken.
1713Union of the main body of the Tuscaroras with the Iroquois.
1729Nov. 30. Massacre of the French inhabitants of Natchez, by the Natchez Indians.
1738Nearly one half of the Cherokees destroyed by the small pox.
1749Singular intrigues of the Reverend Thomas Bosomworth and his wife, the half-breed, Mary Musgrove, among the Creeks.
1750Settlement of difficulties between Spanish and Portuguese colonies on the river La Plata: thirty thousand Guarani Indians expatriated.
1755July 9. Disastrous defeat of General Braddock, by the French and Indians, a few miles from Fort Duquesne.
1759Winter. War between the Cherokees and the British colonists.
1760Spring. Colonel Montgomery’s expedition against the Cherokees: destruction of all their towns east of the Blue Ridge.
1761Spring. Colonel Grant s campaign against the Cherokees: their reduction, and the ravage of their towns in the interior.
1763May. Siege of Detroit commenced by Pontiac.
July 30 Battle of Bloody Bridge, and terrible destruction of English troops under Captain Dalyell, by Pontiac and his warriors.
1773Peace concluded between the Spaniards and the Araucanians.
1774. In the spring of this year commenced the bloody war in Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, known as Cresap’s war.
1774Oct. 10. Great battle at Point Pleasant, mouth of the Kanawha.
1777July. Battle of Oriskany; General Herkimer mortally wounded.
1778July 4. Destruction of the settlements in the valley of Wyoming.
1778Nov. Massacre at Cherry Valley.
1779Sept. General Sullivan s campaign against the Iroquois: destruction of all their towns, crops, fruit trees, and stores.
1780.Aug. Ravage of a portion of the Mohawk valley, by Brant.
1781Great insurrection of the Peruvian Indians, under Tupac Amaru.
1781June. Grand council of war held by the western tribes.
1781Defeat of Colonels Todd, Trigg, and party, near the Blue Licks. ” Indian towns of Chilicothe, Pecaway, &c., destroyed by Gen. Clarke.
1785Brant visited England, and was received with flattering attention.
1786Dec. Grand Council of western Indians at Huron Village.
1791Autumn. Unsuccessful expedition of General Harmar
1791” Nov. 4. Disastrous defeat of General St. Clair, by the Indians, under Little Turtle, near the Miami.
1794Aug. 20. Battle of Presque Isle, in which the western Indians, under Blue Jacket, were signally defeated by General Wayne
1804Elskwatawa, the prophet, brother of Tecumseh, engaged in intrigues among the tribes of the west.
1809Sept. Cession of lands on the Wabash, obtained by General Harrison from the Indians.
1810Departure of Tecumseh southward, for the purpose of rousing up the Creeks, Cherokees, &c.
1811Night of Nov. 6. Battle at the Prophet s Town, in which Elskwatawa s forces were defeated and dispersed by General Harrison.
1813Aug. 30. Sack of Fort Mimms, in the Tensau settlement, by the great Creek warrior Weatherford, with fifteen hundred Indians.
1813Oct. 5. Battle of the Thames: the great Indian chief Tecumseh killed.
1813Nov. 29. Battle of Autosse; destruction of two hundred Indians by General Floyd s forces, aided by Indian allies led by M’Intosh.
1814March 27. Battle of Horse-shoe Bend, in the Tallapoosie: the Creeks and other southern Indians defeated by General Jackson.
1823Sept. 18. Treaty of Moultrie Creek, by which the Seminoles were to remove within certain limits.
1829Dec. 20. Acts passed by the Georgia legislature, annulling the Cherokee laws, and infringing upon the rights of that people.
1830July. Treaty at Prairie du Chien, with the Sacs and Foxes, Iowas, Sioux, &c. concerning cession of lands east of the Mississippi.
1831June. General Games’ expedition to compel removal of the Sacs.
1832May 8. Treaty of Payne s Landing, by the provisions of which the Seminoles were to remove west of the Mississippi.
1832May 14. Defeat of Major Stillman and his forces, by Black Hawk.
1832Aug. 2. Black-Hawk s forces defeated by General Atkinson.
183227. Surrender of Black -Hawk and the Prophet.
1835Oct. The Florida war commenced.
1835Dec. Treaty of New Echota with the Cherokees, (known as Schermerhorn’s treaty) upon the subject of removal of that nation west of the Mississippi.
1835Dec. 28. Destruction of Dade s detachment, by the Seminoles.
1836March 14. Schermerhorn s treaty with the Cherokees ratified by Congress.
1836Spring. General Scott s campaign in Florida.
1837Jan. 22. General Jessup moved southward towards the everglades in pursuit of the Seminoles.
1838Oct. 3. Black-Hawk died, at the age of 73.
1842The Florida war at an end: several hundred Indians transported west of the Mississippi.
1850Hostilities renewed with the remaining Seminoles, under Billy Bowlegs, in Florida.
1856War with the Oregon Indians.
1856Peace concluded. Treaties made with the various tribes.
1857Annihilation of Indians through U. S. troops under Gen. Harney.
1857Massacre of settlers in Minnesota.
1858Billy Bowlegs and thirty Warriors, give themselves up to the U. States, and agree to settle west of the Mississippi.
1858Renewal of hostilities with the Oregon Indians.
1862Sioux Massacre in Minnesota.
1863Sioux Massacre in Minnesota.




Brownell, Charles De Wolf. Indian Races of North and South America: Comprising an account of the principal aboriginal races; a description of their national customs, mythology, and religious ceremonies, the history of their most powerful tribes, and of their most celebrated chiefs and warriors; their intercourse and wars with the European settlers; and a great variety of anecdote and description, illustrative of personal and national character. Hartford, Conn., Chicago,E. B. & R.C. Treat; [etc., etc.]: Hurlbut, Scranton & Co. 1864.

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