History of Plymouth Massachusetts

In our preliminary sketch of Plymouth County we have given many facts that would otherwise appear in our history of this town. Plymouth is thirty-seven miles south-west of Boston. The township is, we believe, the largest in the State, extending sixteen miles on the coast from north to south. The land, back from the village, is generally hilly and covered with pine woods. This wooded section extends many miles into Barnstable County, and is traversed by very few roads, and has scarcely any houses. The delicate fallow deer, still roams this territory, in his native wilderness, and every winter the hunter’s rifle secures its antlered trophies.

The town is built on the shore, upon an easy declivity, about one-fourth of a mile in breadth and one and a half miles in length. The soil here is good.

The harbor is formed by a beach extending three miles northerly from the mouth of Eel River. This beach would long ago have been washed away by the ocean had not large appropriations been made by the town, state, and general government. At present there is not sufficient depth of water for the largest class of vessels, although a very considerable fleet of fishing and coasting vessels is owned here.

“There is considerable water-power in the town, and this mother of all the towns in the land, is setting her daughters a good example of domestic industry.”

Numerous small streams cross the township, arid there are upward of 200 lakes with an aggregate water surface of more than 3000 acres.

We give below an alphabetical list of passengers who arrived at Plymouth in the Mayflower, 180 tons burthen, Dec. 21st, 1620, the Fortune of 55 tons, Nov. 9th, 1621, the Ann, of 140 tons, and the Little James, of 44 tons, the last of July, or the beginning of August, 1623.

Passenger for the Mayflower, Fortune, and the Ann and Little James.

Mr. Isaac Allerton
John Alden
John Allerton
Mr. William Brewster,
John Billington,
Peter Brown,
Richard Britterige,
Mr. William Bradford
Mr. John Carver,
Francis Cook,
James Chilton,
John Crackston,
Richard Clarke,
Edward Dotey
Francis Eaton,
Thomas English,
Mr. Samuel Fuller,
Edward Fuller
Moses Fletcher
John Goodman,
Richard Gardiner,
John Howland,
Mr. Stephen Hopkins
Edward Leister,
Mr. Christopher Martin,
Mr. William Mullins,
Edmund Margeson
Degory Priest
Thomas Rogers,
John Ridgdale,
Capt. Miles Standish
George Soule
Edward Tilly,
John Tilly,
Thomas Tinker,
John Turner
Mr. Edward Winslow,
Mr. William White,
Mr. Richard Warren,
Thomas Williams,
Gilbert Winslow

John Adams
William Bassite,
William Beale,
Edward Bompasse,
Jonathan Brewster,
Clement Brigges,
John Cannon,
William Coner,
Robert Cushman,
Thomas Cushman
Stephen Deane,
Philip de La Noye
Thomas Flavell and son,
Widow Foord
Robert Hickes,
William Hilton
Benet Morgan,
Thomas Morton
Austin Nicholas
William Palmer,
William Pitt,
Thomas Prence,
Moses Simonson,
Hugh Statie,
James Steward
William Tench
John Winslow,
William Wright

Ann & Little James
Anthony Annable
Edward Bangs,
Robert Bartlett,
Pear Brewster,
Patience Brewster,
Mary Bucket,
Edward Burcher,
Thomas Clarke,
Cuthbert Cuthbertson,
Christopher Conant
Anthony Dix
John Faunce,
Goodwife Flavell,
Edmund Flood
Bridget Fuller
Timothy Hatherly,
William Heard,
Margaret Hickes and her children,
William Hilton’s wife and children,
Edward Holman,
John Jenny,
Manasses Kempton
Robert Long
Benet Morgan,
Thomas Morton
Experience Mitchell,
George Morton,
Thomas Morton, Jr,
Ellen Newton,
John Oldham
Francis Palmer,
Mr. Perce’s two servants,
Joshua Pratt,
Christian Penn
James Rand,
Robert Rattliffe
Nicholas Snow,
Alice Southworth,
Francis Sprague,
Barbary Standish
Thomas Tilden,
Stephen Tracy
Ralph Wallen

“Several names contained in the foregoing list, are differently spelt in modern times, namely: Bassite is now spelt Bassett; Bompasse, Bumpas, sometimes Bump; Burcher is probably the same as Burchard, the name of an early settler in Connecticut; De La Noye, Delano: Dotey is on our records called Dote, Dotey, and now frequently written Doten; Simonson, sometimes written Symons, is now Simmons.”

Thomas Carlyle observes, in his recent work, “Look now to American Saxondom, and at that little fact of the sailing of the Mayflower, two hundred years ago. There were straggling settlers in America before; some material as of a body was there; but the soul of it was this. These poor men, driven out of their own country, and not able to live in Holland, determined on settling in the new world. Black untamed forests are there, and wild savage creatures; but not so cruel as a star chamber hangman. They clubbed their small means together, hired a ship, the little Mayflower, and made ready to sail. Hah! These men, I think, had a work. The weak thing, weaker than a child, becomes strong, if it be a true thing. Puritanism was only despicable, laughable, then; but nobody can manage to laugh at it now. It is one of the strongest things under the sun at present.”

“Plymouth was the first town built in New England by civilized man ; and those by whom, it was built were inferior in worth to no Body of men, whose names are recorded in history, during the last seventeen hundred years. A kind of venerableness, arising from these facts, attaches to this town, which may be termed a prejudice. Still, it has its foundation in the nature of man, and will never be eradicated either by philosophy or ridicule. No New Englander, who is willing to indulge his native feelings, can stand upon the rock, where our ancestors set the first foot after their arrival on the American shore, without experiencing emotions very different from those which are ex-cited by any common object of the same nature. No New Englander could be willing to have that rock buried and forgotten.”

“The institutions, civil, literary, and religious, by which New England is distinguished on this side the Atlantic, began here. Here the manner of holding lands in free soccage, now universal in this country, commenced. Here the right of suffrage was imparted to every citizen, to every inhabitant -not disqualified by poverty or vice. Here was formed the first establishment of towns, of the local legislature, which is called a town meetings: and of the peculiar town executive, styled the selectmen. Here the first paroctial school was set up, and the system originated for communicating to every child in the community the knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Here, also, the first building was erected for the worship of God; the first religious assembly gathered; and the first minister called and settled, by the voice of the church and congregation. On those simple foundations has since been erected a structure of good order, peace, liberty, knowledge, morals, and religion, with which nothing on this side the Atlantic can bear a remote comparison.”

The first marriage in Plymouth was May 12, 1621, of Edward Winslow and Widow Susanna White. The first mill in New England was erected near Billington Sea, by Stephen Dean, in 1632.

March 12, 1676, the house of Mr. Clark was attacked by the Indians and 11 persons belonging to two families killed, and the house burnt. May 11, the same year, eleven houses and two barns were burnt by the savages.

Plymouth is not the “rock-bound coast” that poets would make us believe. There is not known in the township a single ledge except those that the fishermen reach with their leads, off the coast, hence it is the more singular that a single, hard, grey-colored syenitic granite boulder should have become so celebrated as “Plymouth Rock.” In 1774, some ardent Whigs, attempted to remove this rock to town square with the intention of erecting over it a liberty pole. In the attempt, the rock split asunder, and the lower part was returned to its original bed, while the top part was drawn to the square, amid great excitement, .by twenty yoke of oxen. July 4th, 1834, this part of the rock was placed in front of Pilgrim Hall. The part remaining at the water’s side is about six and a half feet in diameter. Over this part, a substantial granite monument has been partially erected, by the Pil-grim Society, with funds contributed by the admirers of the Forefathers.

The honor of first stepping upon the Rock, has been claimed both for Mary Chilton and John Alden; by the descendants of each resting upon tradition in both families.

Cole’s Hill, the first burial place of the Pilgrims, is just back of the Rock. About 50 of those who came in the Mayflower, were buried here, including Gov, Carver, “with three vollies of shot fired over him,” and Rose, the beautiful wife of Miles Standish.

Burying Hill, was originally called Port Hill, because here was built the first defensive structure. This ancient fort is distinctly marked on the south-east part of the hill. The building was of good timber, strong and comely, with fiat roof upon which the ordnance was mounted. It also served as a meeting-house. The hill was first used as a burying-ground soon after. The first stone erected, it is supposed, was that of Joseph Bartlett, who died in 1703, although there were many interments previous, including that of Edward Gray, in 1681. Within a few years, several costly monuments have been erected to the memory of the ancient worthies, by their descendants. The Cushman monument is one of the most noticeable. A stone has been erected in memory of the 72 seamen who perished from cold, in Plymouth Harbor, Dec. 26th, and 27th, 1778, on board the private armed brig General Arnold, of 20 guns, numbering 106 persons in all, 60 of whom were buried in one spot and 12 in other parts of the Hill. Quite lately numerous walks have been laid out in different parts of this burying-ground, and an effort to secure some degree of regularity of arrangement has been attempted. Any inhabitants of the town seem to have the free privilege of burying in any unoccupied sections of the lot, and many, even to this day, avail themselves of this privilege, although a large and beautiful cemetery has been consecrated at a little distance west from the village, under the name of “Oak Grove.”

The corner stone of Pilgrim Hall, a monumental structure, was laid Sep. 1st, 182-t, and the building completed ten years later. It is 70 by 40 feet, built of rough granite. On entering the Hall, the painting of the “Landing of the Pilgrims,” generously presented to the Pilgrim Society, by Henry Sargent, Esq., of Boston, first challenges attention. The size is 13 by 16 feet. It was valued at $3000, aside from the frame, which cost $400. All the prominent characters in the Colony, are represented in the costume of their time, with the friendly Indian, Samoset, in the foreground. On the walls, are arranged portraits of Edward Winslow; Josiah Winslow, the first native Governor; his wife Penelope Pelham; Gen. John Winslow; Hon. Ephraim Spooner; John Alden of Middleboro, great-grandson of John Alden the Pilgrim, who died in 1821, aged 102 years; Maj. Gen. Benj. Lincoln; Hon. John Trumbull; James Thatcher, M. D.; James Kendell, D. D.; and others. Among the antiquities are: A chair which belonged to Gov. Carver ; the sword, pewter dish, and iron pot, that belonged to Miles Standish; the gun-barrel with which King Philip was killed; the original letter of Philip to Gov. Prince, written in 1662 ; deeds bearing the signatures of Miles Standish, Josiah Winslow, Peregrine White, John Alden, and many other of the old notables ; chairs belonging to Elder Brewster, and Gov. Wm. Bradford; a bead purse wrought by Mrs. Gov. Winslow, while on her voyage over; a gold ring owned by the Gov., and containing some of his hair; a commission from Oliver Cromwell to Edward Winslow, dated April, 1654; a clock belonging to Gov. Hancock, which was taken to West Bridgewater at the time of the siege; the “Fuller cradle;” besides many other valuable relics of the Pilgrims. There is also a large library.

In front of Pilgrim Hall, is an iron railing enclosing a part of Forefather’s Rock on which are inscribed the 41 names of the signers of the compact in the Mayflower.

The “Old Colony Club” was formed in 1769. The first celebration of the Landing of the Forefathers, was held in 1769. A very plain dinner of the old-fashioned dishes was served. The succeeding year, m addition to the dinner, an address was delivered by Edward Winslow, the first of a long series of similar productions.

The “Pilgrim Society” was formed in 1820. In l850, it was voted to erect a monument on or near the Rock.

The beach was formerly well wooded, and abounded with plums and grapes. The Gurnet, at the entrance of the harbor, containing about 27 acres of excellent land, was also well wooded. It is the extreme point of Marshfield beach.

The Province of Massachusetts erected a light house in 1768, which was destroyed by fire in 1801. The United States erected its successor in 1803. Saquish, the Indian for clams, is a headland containing 14 acres, and connected with the Gurnet, The “Cow Yard” is the good anchorage nearby, so called because a cow whale was captured there in early days.

Clark’s Island, so called in honor of the mate of the Mayflower, contains 86 acres, and was the place of the first landing of the Pilgrims in this section, and was where they spent their first Sabbath. It was formerly well covered with cedar trees. It has been owned by the town, and by the Watson family.

A large rock on the island called Election Rock, was long resorted to by holiday parties. Brown’s Island was covered with trees when the Pilgrims landed. It is now under water.

The Court House, on Court House Square, is a very handsome building, fitted up in admirable style for the use of the various County Officers as well as Courts. The beautiful green in front, is enclosed with an iron fence. In the rear of the Court House are the geols and dwelling-house attached.

The Works for supplying Plymouth village with water from “South Ponds,” which are situated some three miles south of the village, were constructed by the town in 1855, at a cost of about $82,000. The Constructing Engineer was Moses Bates, Esq. More than twelve miles of pipe, exclusive of service, was laid. The Plymouth Gaslight Co., is another city luxury that our people would hardly care to do without.

The seventy vessels employed in the Cod and Mackerel Fisheries, and coasting business, in 1865, with a tonnage of 20,733, employed 513 men. At the same date there were three cotton-mills 1 spool-cotton mill, 1 woolen mill, 1 rolling mill, 2 tack manufactories, 4 cordage establishments, 2 rivet, and 2 neck stock and ties manufactories.

The first Indian with whom the Colonists had any intercourse, was Samoset, the Sagamore, whose home was probably in Maine When he entered the settlement he was stark naked, except a leather about his waist, with a narrow fringe. The savage had picked up a few words of English from the fishermen who had occasionally visited the coast. It was a joyful day for the Pilgrim band when they heard in their own tongue the words “Welcome, Welcome Englishmen. “They gave him the best food they had and some strong water.

The Indian names of Plymouth were Umpame, Apaum or Patuxet.

No communication was opened between the Colony at Plymouth and the Dutch settlement at New York, until 1627.

The first cattle were imported in 1623.

Watson’s Hill was the place where Massasoit appeared with sixty warriors, and exchanged hostages with the English, preliminary to the treaty of peace, in March, 1621. At this interview, Samoset appears again, for the last time in history, accompanied by Squanto, the only native of Plymouth, who had been captured and carried to England, and who also could speak a little English, accompanied by three others. These friendly natives acted as interpreters, and on that day a treaty of friendship and good will was effected that lasted for fifty years.

Billington Sea, is a lovely sheet of fresh water, two miles south-west of the town, which was discovered from a tree-top, by Francis Billington, in 1621. It is about one and a half miles long, and six miles in circumference.

Leyden Street received its present name in 1823, out of grateful remembrance of the kindnesses received by the Pilgrims in the city of Leyden. It had previously been called First, Great, and Broad Street.

The first house of worship was built on the north side of Town Square. Richard Church, and John Thompson, afterwards of Middleboro, were the architects. This building was taken down in 1683 and another one built at the head of the square. A third house was built in 1744, being about 71 by 68 feet, with spire 100 feet high surmounted by a brass weather-cock. The Gothic edifice was built by the first church at a cost of $10,000. It is 61 by 70 feet. The church of the Pilgrimage was erected in 1840, and stands near the site of the first meeting-house. The Town House was built in 1749, and was formerly used as the County Court House.

In January, 1831, the snow was three feet deep in Plymouth woods, so impeding the movements of the deer, that with snow shoes the hunters captured 200, about 40 of them being taken alive.

The bi-centennial celebration of the landing, observed in 1820, was an occasion of great interest, Daniel Webster delivering the oration. “Among other affecting memorials, calling to mind the distresses of the Pilgrims, at the dinner, five kernels of parched corn were placed on each plate, alluding to the time in 1623, when that was the proportion allowed to each individual, on account of the scarcity.”

The Samoset House, taking into account its location and management, is the most attractive summer home for the tourist in Plymouth County.

The first newspaper printed in the Old Colony, was at Plymouth, in 1786, by Nathaniel Cleverly. Since then, numerous hebdomadals have been established and gone to decay.

Two very superior weekly papers are now printed at Plymouth. “The Old Colony Memorial and Plymouth Rock” is published by Geo. P. Andrews. This paper was formed from the union of the old democratic with the old Whig organ of the County, and is now in its forty-sixth year.

“The Old Colony Sentinel” is published every Saturday, by Moses Bates, Editor and Proprietor. “As an independent conservative journal, devoted to the interests of the people, the Sentinel claims to have no equal in the Old Colony.”

The present officers of the Pilgrim Society are:
E. S. Tobey, of Boston, Presiden
Wm. T. Davis, of Plymouth, Vice Presiden
William S. Danforth, of Plymouth, Rec. and Corresponding Secretary
Isaac N. Stoddard, of Plymouth, Treasure
Lemuel D. Holmes, of Plymouth. Librarian
Timothy Gordon, Wm. H. Whitman, Thomas Loring, Charles G. Davis, Samuel H. Doten, Charles 0. Churchill, Geo. G. Dyer, and Benjamin Hathaway, of Plymouth, Samuel Nicholson, Isaac Rich, Edward S. Tobey, William Thomas, Nathaniel B. Shurtleff and Abraham Jackson, of Boston, George S. Boutwell, of Groton, Ichabod Washburn, of Worcester, William Savery, of Carver, George P. Hayward, of Hingham, Trustees.

The population of Plymouth in 1620, was 101; in 1720, it was 1206; in 1820, it was 4348, and in 1860, it was 6272.

The schools of Plymouth are many of them of a very high order. For several years the town has employed a Superintendent of public schools.

The corner-stone of a grand National Monument to the Forefathers, was laid on Monument Hill, Aug. 2d, 1859.

In 1627, Isaack De Raisiers, was sent from Manhattan to visit the Plymouth Colony. In his Report to his own government, he gives the following very interesting sketch of the appearance of Plymouth at that early day:

“At the south side of the town there flows down a small river of fresh water, very rapid, but shallow, which takes its rise from several lakes in the land above, and there empties into the sea; where in April and the beginning of May there come so many herring from the sea which want to ascend that river, that it is quite surprising. This river the English have shut in with planks, and in the middle with a little door, which slides up and down, and at the sides with trellice work, through which the water has its course, but which they can also close with slides. At the mouth they have constructed it with planks, like an eel pot, with wings, where in the middle is also a sliding door, and with trellice work at the sides, so that between the two [dams] there is a square pool, into which the fish aforesaid come swimming in such shoals, in order to get up above, where they deposit their spawn, that at one tide there are 10,000 to 12,000 fish in it, which they shut off in the rear at the ebb, and close up the trellises above, so that no more water comes in; then the water runs out through the lower trellises and they draw out the fish with baskets, each according to the land he cultivates, and carry them to it, depositing in each hill three or four fishes, and in these they plant them maize, which grows as luxuriantly therein as though it were the best manure in the world : and if they do not lay this fish therein, the maize will not grow, so that such is the nature of the soil.

“New Plymouth lies on the slope of a hill stretching east towards the sea-coast, with a broad street about a cannon shot of 800 [yards] long, leading down the hill; with a [street] crossing in the middle, north-wards to the rivulet, and southwards to the land. The houses are constructed of hewn planks, with gardens also enclosed behind and at the sides with hewn planks, so that their houses and court yards are arranged in very good order, with a stockade against a sudden attack; and at the ends of the streets there are three wooden gates. In the centre, on the cross street, stands the Governor’s house, before which is a square enclosure upon which four patereros [steen-stucken] are mounted, so as to flank along the streets. Upon the hill, they have a large square house, with a flat roof, made of thick sawn planks, stayed with oak beams, upon the top of which they have six cannons, which shoot iron balls of four or five pounds, and command the sur-rounding country. The lower part they use for their church, where they preach on Sundays and the usual holidays. They assemble by beat of drum, each with his musket or firelock, in front of the captain’s door; they have their cloaks on and place themselves in order, three abreast, and are led by a sergeant without beat of drum. Behind comes the Governor, in a long robe; beside him, on the right hand, comes the preacher with his cloak on, and on the left hand the captain with his side arms and cloak on, and with a small cane in his hand, and so they march in good order, and each sets his arms down near him. Thus they are constantly on their guard night and day.

“Their government is after the English form. The Governor has his council, which is chosen every year by the entire community by election or prolongation of term. In the inheritance they place all the children in one degree, only the eldest son has an acknowledgement for his seniority of birth.

“They have made stringent laws and ordinances upon the subject of fornication and adultery, which laws they maintain and enforce very strictly indeed, even among the tribes which live amongst them. They [the English] speak very angrily, when they hear from the savages that we should live so barbarously in these respects, and without punishment.

“Their farms are not so good as ours, because they are more stony, and consequently not so suitable for the plough. They apportion their land according as each has means to contribute to the Eighteen Thousand Guilders which they have promised to those who had sent them out; whereby they have their freedom without rendering an account to any one; only if the king should choose to send a Governor General they would be obliged to acknowledge him as sovereign chief.

“The maize seed which they do not require tor their own use is delivered over to the Governor, at three guilders the bushel, who in his turn sends it in sloops to the North for the trade in skins among the savages; they reckon one bushel of maize against one pound of beaver’s skin; in the first place, a division is made, according to what each has contributed, and they are credited for the amount in the account of what each has to contribute yearly towards the reduction of his obligation. Then with the remainder they purchase what next they require, and which the Governor takes care to provide every year.

“They have better means of living than ourselves, because they have the fish so abundant before their doors. There are also many birds, such as geese, herons, and cranes, and other small-legged birds which are in great abundance there in the winter. The tribes in their neighborhood have all the same customs as already above described, only they are better conducted than ours, because the English give them the example of better ordinances and a better life ; and who, also to a certain degree, give them laws, by means of the respect they from the very first have established amongst them.

“The savages [there] practice their youth in labor better than the savages round about us; the young girls in sowing maize, the young men in hunting; they teach them to endure privation in the field in a singular manner to wit: when there is youth who begins to approach manhood, he is taken by his father, uncle, or nearest friend and is conducted blindfolded into a wilderness, in order that he may not know the way, and is left there by night or otherwise, with a bow and arrows, and a hatchet and a knife. He must support himself there a whole winter, with what the scanty earth furnishes at this season, and by hunting. Towards the spring they come again, and fetch him out of it, take him home and feed him up again until May. He must then go out again every morning with the person who is ordered to take him in hand ; he must go into the forest to seek wild herbs and roots which they know to be the most poisonous and bitter ; these they bruise in water and press the juice out of them, which he must drink and immediately have ready such herbs as will preserve him from death or vomiting; and if he cannot retain it, he must repeat the dose until he can support it, and until his constitution becomes accustomed to it so that he can retain it. Then he comes home, and is brought by the men and women, all singing and dancing, before the Sackima; and if he has been able to stand it all out well, and if he is fat and sleek, a wife is given to him.”

The following was the substance of the treaty of peace between the Colonists and Massasoit, made on Watson’s Hill:

  • 1. That neither he nor any of his should injure or do hurt to any of our people.
  • 2. And if any of his did hurt to any of ours, he should send the offender, that we might punish him.
  • 3. That if any of our tools were taken away, when our people were at work, he should cause them to be restored; and if ours did any harm to any of his, we would do the like to them.
  • 4. If any did unjustly war against him, we would aid him; if any did war against us, he should aid us.
  • 5. He should send to his neighbor confederates to certify them of this, that they might not wrong us, but might be likewise comprised in the conditions of peace.
  • 6. That when their men came to us, they should leave their bows and arrows behind them, as we should do our pieces when we came to them.

Lastly, that doing thus. King James would esteem of him as his friend and ally.

All of which the King seemed to like well, and it was applauded of his followers. All the while he sat by the governor he trembled for fear. In his person he is a very lusty man, in his best years, an able body grave of countenance, and spare of speech; in his attire little or nothing differing from the rest of his followers, only in a great chain of white bone beads about his neck; and at it, behind his neck, hangs a little bag of tobacco, which he drank,4 and gave us to drink. His face was painted with a sad red, like murrey, and oiled both head and face, that he looked greasily. All his followers likewise were in their faces, in part or in whole, painted, some black, some red, some yellow, and some white, some with crosses, and other antic works ; some had skins on them, and some naked; all strong, tall men in appearance.

“So after all was done, the governor conducted him to the brook, and there they embraced each other, and he departed; we diligently keeping our hostages.”

This visit of Massasoit’s was returned by Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins. “They slept the first night at Namasket, now Middleboro, and arrived at Pockanocket the nest day. The king was short of provision, but procured a couple of fish, of which he gave them part. They lodged upon a bed of plank, raised a foot from the ground, with a mat upon them; and upon the same lay also Massasoit, his wife, and two of his men, and so crowded them that they were more weary of their lodging than their journey. They set out for home the next day, fearing lest fasting, hard lodging, lice, fleas, and moschetoes, would render them unable to return.

In 1623, word came that Massasoit was sick nigh unto death, and Edward Winslow, and John Hambden visited him, accompanied by Hobamock as guide. Winslow in his account says:

“In the way, Hobamock, manifesting a troubled spirit, brake forth into these speeches: “Neen womasu Sagimus, neen womasu Sagimus, &c., My loving sachem, my loving sachem! Many have I known, but never any like thee.” And, turning to me, he said whilst I lived I should never see his like amongst the Indians; saying he was no liar; he was not bloody and cruel, like other Indians. In anger and passion he was soon reclaimed; easy to be reconciled towards such as had offended him; ruled by reason in such measure as he would not scorn the advice of mean men; and that he governed his men better with few strokes than others did with many; truly loving where he loved; yea, he feared we had not a faithful friend left among the Indians; showing how he oft times restrained their malice, &c.; continuing a long speech, with such signs of lamentation and unfeigned sorrow, as it would have made the hardest heart relent.

“At length we came to Mattapuyst, and went to the sachimo comaco, for so they called the sachem’s place though they call an ordinary house witeo; but Conbatant, the sachem, was not at home, but at Puckanokick, which was some five or six miles off. The squa sachem, for so they call the sachem’s wife, gave us friendly entertainment. Here we inquired again concerning Massassowat: they thought him dead, but knew no certainty. Whereupon I hired one to go, with all expedition, to Puckanokick, that we might know the certainty thereof, and withal to acquaint Conbatant with our there being. About half an hour before sun-setting the messenger returned, and told us that he was not yet dead, though there was no hope we should find him living. Upon this we were much revived, and set forward with all speed, though it was late within night ere we got thither. About two of the clock, that afternoon, the Dutchman departed; so that in that respect our journey was frustrate.

“When we came thither, we found the house so full of men, as we could scarce get in, though they used their best diligence to make way for us. There were they in the midst of their charms for him, making such a hellish noise as it distempered us that were well, and therefore unlike to ease him that was sick. About him were six or eight women, who chafed his arms, legs, and thighs, to keep heat in him. When they had made an end of their charming, one told him that his Mends, the English, were come to see him. Having understanding left, but his sight was wholly gone, he asked who was come. They told him Winsnow, for they cannot pronounce the letter I, but ordinarily n in the place thereof. He desired to speak with me. When I came to him, and they told him of it, he put forth his hand to me, which I took. Then he said twice, though very inwardly. Keen Winsnow? which is to say. Art thou Winslow? I answered, Ahhe, that is, Yes. Then he doubled these words: Matta neen wonckanet namen, Winsnow! that is to say, Winslow, I shall never see thee again.

“Then I called Hobamock, and desired him to tell Massassowat, that the governor, hearing of his sickness, was sorry for the same; and though, by reason of many businesses, he could not come himself, yet he sent me with such things for him as he thought most likely to do him good in this extremity; and whereof if he pleased to take, I would presently give him; which he desired; and having a confection of many comfortable conserves, on the point of my knife, I gave him some, which I could scarce get through his teeth. When it was dis-solved in his mouth, he swallowed the juice of it; whereat those that were about him much rejoiced, saying he had not swallowed anything in two days before. Then I desired to see his mouth, which was exceedingly furred, and his tongue swelled in such a manner as it was not possible for him to eat such meat as they had, his passage being stopped up. Then I washed his mouth, and scraped his tongue, and got abundance of corruption out of the same. After which I gave him more of the confection, which he swallowed with more readiness. Then he desired to drink. I dissolved some of it in water, and gave him thereof. Within half an hour this wrought a great alteration in him, in the eyes of all that beheld him. Presently after his sight began to come to him. Then I gave him more, and told him of a mishap we had, in breaking a bottle of drink, which the governor also sent him, saying, if he would send any of his men to Patuxet, I would send for more of the same; also for chickens to make him broth, and for other things, which I knew were good for him; and would stay the return of his messenger, if he desired. This he took marvelous kindly, and appointed some, who were ready to go by two of the clock in the morning; against which time I made ready a letter, declaring therein our good success, the state of his body, &c., desiring to send such things as I sent for, and such physic as the surgeon durst administer to him.

“He requested me that, the day following, I would take my piece, and kill him some fowl, and make him some English pottage, such as he had eaten at Plymouth; which I promised. After, his stomach coming to him, I must needs make him some without fowl, before I went abroad, which somewhat troubled me; but being I must do somewhat, I caused a woman to bruise some corn, and take the flour from it, and set over the girt, or broken corn, in a pipkin, for they have earthen pots of all sizes. When the day broke, we went out, it being now March, to seek herbs, but could not find any but strawberry leaves, of which I gathered a handful, and put into the same; and because I had nothing to relish it, I went forth again, and pulled up a sassafras root, and sliced a piece thereof, and boiled it, till it had a good relish, and then took it out again. The broth being boiled, I strained it through my handkerchief, and gave him at least a pint, which he drank, and liked it very well. After this his sight mended more and more; and he took some rest; insomuch as we with admiration blessed God for giving his blessing to such raw and ignorant means, making no doubt of his recovery, himself and all of them acknowledging us the instruments of his preservation. That morning he caused me to spend in going from one to another amongst those that were sick in the town, requesting me to wash their mouths also, and give to each of them some of the same I gave him, saying that they were good folk. This pains I took with willingness, though it were much offensive to me, not being accustomed with such poisonous savors.

“The messengers were now returned, but finding his stomach come to him, he would not have the chickens killed, but kept them for breed. Neither durst we give him any physic, which was then sent, because his body was so much altered since our instructions; neither saw we any need, not doubting now of his recovery, if he were careful. Many, whilst we were there, came to see him; some, by their report, from a plate not less than a hundred ,miles. Upon this his recovery, he brake forth into these speeches: “Now I see the English are my friends and love me; and whilst I live, I will never forget this kindness they have showed me.” Whilst we were there, our entertainment exceeded all other strangers.” Good News from New England.

There are fifteen towns with the name of Plymouth in the United States, besides “Plymouth’ Hollow,” “Plymouth Meeting” and “Plymouth Rock,” Iowa.

Died in Revolutionary Service From Plymouth

From the time of the first call for troops to suppress Rebellion, April l5th, 1861, to the close of the war, Plymouth promptly responded to the calls for men, and means. She furnished 69 three months’ men, 42 for 9 months, 23 for 1 year, 478 for three years, and 108 for the Navy. The following is the roll of the dead as published in the Town Report for 1866:

John K. Alexander, E, 29th, killed at Spottsylvania, May 12th, 1864.
Wm. T. Atwood, E, 23d, at Newborn, of fever, July 20th, 1862.
Joseph W. B. Burgess, H, 8th N. H., died at Washington, Dec. 9th, 1864.
Thomas B. Burt, E, 29th, died at Washington, Oct. 31st, 1862.
Wm. Brown, a fugitive slave from Maryland, died on the naval ship “Constellation,” Dec. 24th, 1864.
Victor A. Bartlett, of the steamer “Housatonic,” captured in the naval attack upon Fort Sumter, died in Salisbury Prison, Mar. 25th, 1864.
Nathaniel Burgess, E, 29th, wounded at Port Steadman, died July 1st, 1864.
Lawrence E. Blake, E, 29th, killed at Antietam, Sept. 17th, 1862.
Edward D, Brailey, E, 23d, killed on picket, at Newbern, April 27th, 1862.
George W. Burgess, G, 18th, transferred to regular artillery and died at Falmouth Hospital, March 8th 1863.
George W. Barnes, Q. M. Serg’t, 32d, at Harrison’s Landing, Aug. 3d, 1862.
Jedediah Bumpus, C, 9th, killed June 30th, 1864.
Capt Joseph W. Collingwood, 18th, wounded at Fredericksburg, died Bee 24th, 1862.
Adj’t. John B. Collingwood, 29th, at St. John’s Hospital, Cincinnati, August 21st, 1863.
Thomas Collingwood, E, 29th, at Camp Parks, Ky. Aug. 3lst, 1863.
John Carline, B, 23d, at Roanoke Island, Oct. 14th, 1864.
Joseph L. Churchill, E, 23d, killed at Newborn, March 14th, 1862.
Isaac Dickerman, 99th N. T., died near Fortress Monroe, Nov. 12th, 1863.
Benj. F. Durgin, D, 3Sth, at Baton Rouge, Aug. 8th, 1863.
Seth W. Eddy, H, 58th, at Readville, August 13th, 1864.
William Edes, F, 11th, at Andersonville, Aug. 30th, 1864.
Theodore S. Fuller, E, 23d, captured Oct. l0th, 1863, and died in prison.
Melvin C. Faught, A, o2d, at Windmill Point Hospital, Va., Feb. 5th, 1863.
Lemuel B. Faunce, jr., G, 38th, at Goldsboro, N. C, April 23d, 1865.
Edward E. Green, E, 38th, at Baton Rouge, July 11th, 1868.
Lieut. Frederick Holmes, 38th, killed at Port Hudson, July 14th, 1862.
Thomas W. Hayden, E, 29th, at Crab Orchard, Sept. 4th, 1863.
Orin D. Holmes, E, 29th, killed at Fort Steadman, March 25th, 1864.
Edwin F. Hall, D, 58th, killed at Cold Harbor, June 3d, 1864.
George M. Heath, E, 32d, at Harrison’s Landing, July 30th, 1862.
Justus W. Harlow, E, 29th, at Camp Hamilton, Sept. 16th, 1862.
Wm. N. Hathaway, G, 38th, at Convalescent Camp, Feb. 23d, 1863.
Thomas Haley, G, 38th, at St. James’ Hospital, La., April 5th, 1863.
Lieut. Horace A. Jenks, E, 29th, at Mill Dale Hospital, Miss., July
Lieut. Thomas A. Mayo, E, 29th, killed at Gaines’ Mills, June 27th. 1802.
Charles E. Merriam, at Harper’s Ferry, Nov. 12th, 1862.
Lemuel B. Morton, E, 29th, killed at Spottsylvania, May 12th, 1864.
Gideon E. Morton, F, 7th, at Fredericksburg, May 8d. 1863.
J. T. Oldham, B, 24th, at Newborn, 1863.
Isaac H. Perkins, E, 23d, died of wounds, at Campbell Hospital, June 26th, 1864.
George T. Peckham, E, 29th, at Knoxville, Nov. 1st, 1863.
Wm. Perry, G, 38th, at New Orleans, June 5th, 1863.
Thomas Pugh, fugitive slave, 5th Cavalry, died at sea, Nov. 18th, 1865, while on his way home.
Lewis Payzant, date of death unknown.
Harvey A. Raymond, E, 23d, killed at Whitehall, N. C, Dec.16th, 1862.
Henry H. Bobbins, E, 29th, at Kalorama Hospital, Dec. 4th, 1 863.
Albert E. Robbins, E, 29th, March 5th, 1864.
Edward Stevens, E, 23d, at Newbern, Jan. 19th, 1863, of wounds received at Whitehall.
Thomas S. Saunders, K, 23d, at Roanoke Island, March 11th, 1862.
William H. Shaw, E, 32d, Aug. 6th, 1865.
Edward Smith, E, 23d, captured, exchanged and died at Annapolis, May, 1862.
John Sylvester, 1st Cavalry, at Andersonville, Dec. 16th, 1864. His. grave is No. 12,053.
Otis Sears, G, 38th, while at home on furlough, Jan. 5th, 1864.
E. Stevens Turner, Acting Master store ship “Relief,” at Rio Janeiro, Aug. 5th, 1864.
Frank A. Thomas, E, 29th, at Gamp Hamilton, Sept. 14th, 1862.
David A. Taylor, E, 32d, killed at Petersburg, June 22d, 1864.
Wallace Taylor, B, 24th, at Newbern, Nov. 28d, 1862.
Charles E. Tillson, E, 29th, at Andersonville, July 14th, 1864. His grave is No. 3JS28.
Israel H. Thrasher, D, 38th, of wounds at Port Hudson, June 29th, 1863.
David E. Taller, I, 58th, at Alexandria, Oct. 6th, 1864.
Serg’t George E. Wadsworth, 29th, at Camp Parks, Ky., Aug. 31st, 1863.
Charles E. Wadsworth, 12th, at Salisbury Prison, Nov. 29th, 1864.
David Williams, E, 29th, at Camp Dennison, Ky., Sept. 14th, 1863.
Benjamin Westgate, E, 23d, killed at Whitehall, Doc. 16th, 1862.
John M. Whiting, G, 38th, killed at Opequan Creek, Sept. 19th, 1864.
John Whitmore, Acting Master, of yellow fever, at sea, Aug., 1863.

A very large Monumental Association was formed in 1866, for the purpose of erecting a fitting memorial to the honored dead.

On the old forest road leading from Plymouth to Sandwich, may be seen the well-known “Sacrifice Rocks.” They are within the limits of Plymouth. Tradition assorts that they have for ages been covered with sticks and stones. It was a habit with the Indians of the Old Colony, as well as of some portion of our own unlettered race, in early times, in both hemispheres, to thus mark certain spots with their sepulchral significance, and large rocks if lying on their path were selected for this purpose. In the absence of rocks, heaps of sticks accumulating through this simple rite of commemoration, attested their regard for the departed.

Note. Among the authorities consulted in the preparation of the foregoing sketch, we mention “Russell’s Pilgrim Memorials,” “Barber History,” and “Hayward’s Gazetteer.”


4. Or the same as smoking tobacco.

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