People of One Fire

Thornton, Richard. People of One Fire. Web. Georgia. 2010-2013. Digital Rights Copyright 2010-2013 by

Early European Explorers

Throughout the late 17th century and first 2/3 of the 18th century, Great Britain and France competed for control of North America.  Some have called this period, the Second Hundred Years War.  Although the European troops were not always fighting each other, their Indian allies were.  Spain had challenged Great Britain’s colonization efforts in the …

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Where was Chiaha?

The Native American town of Chiaha was visited by the Hernando de Soto Expedition in July of 1541. It was visited at least twice by the Juan Pardo Expedition of 1567.

Origins of the Muskogee Branch of the Creek Indians

Muskogee or Mvskoke is generally translated as “people who have herbal medicine.” It nowadays is considered synonymous with “Creek Indian,” but did not appear on any maps until very, very late in the 18th Century. The most common name for the “Creek Indians” at that time was “Coweta.”

Creek Indian Warehouses

Creek food reserves were stored in large warehouses in the capital of the province. Subordinate villages furnished food reserves to their district administrative center’s warehouse that was known as a talula in Itsati and a talufa in Mvskoke.

The Tamatli

Little known today outside the State of Louisiana, the Tamatli branch of the Creek Indians apparently had a culture with substantial Mesoamerican influences.

Where was Hernando de Soto’s Guaxale?

Guaxale was a Native American village visited by the Hernando de Soto Expedition in late spring of 1541. De Soto and his small army of conquistadors explored what was to become the Southeastern United States between the years 1539 and 1543. Despite the fact that de Soto’s men only visited Guaxale briefly, and the village was not large, it’s location has been a major focus for scholars, studying the earliest Spanish explorers. In North Carolina one suggested location of Guaxale has even been a key element of tourism promotion.

Achese becomes the first capital of the Creek Confederacy

Achese apparently became the most important town in what archaeologists label the Lamar Culture. The Lamar Culture is named after the Lamar Village, which is the name given the site by archaeologists. Lamar Culture towns built smaller mounds that previous phases of the Creek Indian culture. The mounds were oval and faced west. The principal temple mounds of earlier towns were usually pentagonal and extremely large, some of the largest built in North America. By not devoting so much labor into mound-building, the Lamar Culture people were able to grow more food and obtain more game or fish. It was a very prosperous time in the region.

Achese: Birthplace of the Creek Confederacy

The four versions of the de Soto Chronicles say very little about this American Indian town, whose ruins are now known as “the Lamar Village Component of Ocmulgee National Monument.” This is surprising, since the town figures prominently in Creek Indian history. In fact, the chroniclers could not even agree on the town’s name. The Gentleman of Elvas called the town, Achese. Other versions called it Ochese, Ichese and Uchese. English colonists, 200 years later, would call it Ochese. That name stuck.

Shell and Sand Mounds of Tick Island, Florida

On Tick Island, near Jacksonville, Florida contractors were merrily tearing away at another shell mound when workers found stone tools and weapons mixed with the shells. Word got out. Some amateur collectors began poking around the site looking for perfect spear points, ornaments and pottery. Before the ancient structures were totally destroyed, Ripley Bullen, a professional archeologist investigated the site.

Why and How did Native Americans Build Mounds

“Indian mound” is the common name for a variety of solid structures erected by some of the indigenous peoples of the United States. Most Native American tribes did not build mounds. The majority were constructed in the Lower Southeast, Ohio River Valley, Tennessee River Valley and the Mississippi River Valley. Some shell mounds can be found along the entire length of the United States’ Atlantic Coast.

Early Slave Raid Period 1657-1684

In 1567 Captain Juan Pardo explored an extensive area of what is now the Carolina Piedmont & Highlands. He probably also traveled through sections of the upper Tennessee Valley and northeastern Georgia – possibly even SW Virginia. Licenciado (attorney) Juan de la Bandero recorded names of indigenous communities that he visited and gave some geographical …

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The Teepee

Hollywood has taught us much during the 100+ years of making Westerns. Everyone now knows that the Lakota (Sioux) invented the teepee and that all teepee’s are made of buffalo hides. By the time that the White Man arrived, the Sioux invention had spread throughout the continent. Those Indians, who didn’t have teepee’s or ride …

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Peachtree Mound near Murphy, North Carolina

The Peachtree Site had one of the few Hierarchal Period mounds in the North Carolina Mountains that has been excavated by professional archaeologists. The Heye Foundation studied the mound during the early 1900s in the same period that it excavated the Nacoochee Mound in the Georgia Mountains. Unfortunately, this work was done in an era when neither precise aerial photography nor radiocarbon dating was possible. Also, archaeologists of this era were primarily interested in obtaining ‘trophy’ artifacts for their museum and benefactors in the Northeast. Little attention was given to the town as a whole, or its chronology. Most of the mound was destroyed. Farmers leveled what remained after the archaeologists left. However, many mounds are still visible on satellite color and infrared maps.

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