Collection: Early History of the Creek Indians

Tawasa Tribe and Pawokti Tribe

The first reference to the Tawasa is by Ranjel and the Fidalgo of Elvas. Tawasa is mentioned as one of the towns at which the De Soto expedition stopped and is placed between Ulibahali (Holiwa-hali) and Talisi (Tulsa). It is called by Ranjel Tuasi, by Elvas Toasi. 1Bourne, Narr. of De Soto, I, p. 85; II, p. 114. On plates 2 accompanying, Tawasa (1) and Tulsa (1) should be transposed. From this location it is evident that the tribe, or part of it, was at that time among the Upper Creeks, but from Lamhatty’s narrative it appears they had moved southeast

Tennessee River Tribes

We have had occasion to notice several tribes or portions of tribes in the valley of the Tennessee or even farther north whose history is in some way bound up with that of the better-known peoples of the Creek Confederacy. Thus the Tamahita came from the upper Tennessee or one of its branches, part of the Koasati and part of the Tuskegee were on the Tennessee, and there are indications that the same was true of part of the Tamali. Perhaps another case of the kind is furnished by the Oconee. Still another people divided into a northern and southern

Tamahita Tribe

In 1673 the Virginia pioneer Abraham Wood sent two white men, James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, the latter probably an indentured servant, in company with eight Indians, to explore western Virginia up to and beyond the mountains. They were turned back at first “by misfortune and unwillingness of ye Indians before the mountaines that they should discover beyond them”; but May 17 they were sent out again, and on June 25 they met some “Tomahitans” on their way from the mountains to the Occaneechi, a Siouan tribe. Some of these came to see Wood, and meanwhile the rest returned to

1818 Early's Map

Sawokli Tribe

The earliest home of the Sawokli of which we have any indication was upon or near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, probably in the neighborhood of Choctawhatchee Bay. Thus Barcia refers to “the Provinces of Pancacola, Sabacola, and others, upon the ports and bays of the Gulf of Mexico,” 1Barcia, La Florida, p. 324. and the position above given agrees very well with that assigned to them, under the name “Sowoolla,” upon the Lamhatty map. 2Amer. Anttirop., n. s. vol. x, p. 571. In a letter written in the year 1680 Gov. Cabrera of Florida says: The Cazique

Seminole Indian History

The history of the Seminole is very well known in outline, and much has been written regarding our famous Seminole War; yet it is evident that much remains to be said, on the Indian side at least, before we can have a clear understanding of the Seminole society and Seminole history. The name, as is well known, is applied by the Creeks to people who remove from populous towns and live by themselves, and it is commonly stated that the Seminole consisted of “runaways” and outlaws from the Creek Nation proper. A careful study of their history, however, shows this

Shawnee Indian Tribe

The earliest known home of the Shawnee was on Cumberland River. From there some of them moved across to the Tennessee and established settlements about the Big Bend. As we have seen, Henry Woodward was a witness, in 1674, to what was probably the first appearance of members of the tribe on Savannah River. 1See: Yuchi Indian Tribe. Although he represents them as settled southwest of that stream near the Spaniards, it is more likely that the individuals whom he met belonged on the Cumberland, had been to St. Augustine to trade with the Spaniards, and were on their return

Osochi Tribe

I have registered my belief that the origin of the Osochi is to be sought in that Florida “province” through which De Soto passed shortly before reaching the Apalachee. The name is given variously as Uçachile, 1Bourne, Narr. of De Soto, II, p. 73. Uzachil, 2Bourne, Narr. of De Soto, I, p. 41. Veachile, 3Bourne, Narr. of De Soto, II, p. 6. and Ossachile. 4Shipp’s De Soto and Fla., p. 299. Since the Timucua chief Uriutina speaks of the Uçachile as “of our nation,” 5Bourne, op. cit., II, p. 75. while the chief of Uçachile is said to be “kinsman

Other Muskogee Towns and Villages

Besides the recognized tribes or towns of major importance and such of their offshoots as can be identified, the literature of this region contains many names of towns or villages which can not be definitely connected with any of those given. In some cases it may be that we have to deal with ancient divisions in process of decline which were never connected with the rest, but in at least nine-tenths of the cases they are nothing more than temporary offshoots of the larger bodies. Opilłåko (“Big Swamp”) seems to have been one of the most ancient and important of

Pakana Tribe

We now come to peoples incorporated in the Muskhogean confederation which were probably distinct bodies and yet not certainly possessed of a peculiar dialect like the Hitchiti, Alabama, and other tribes of foreign origin already considered. The Pakana are given by Adair as one of those people which the Muskogee had “artfully” induced to incorporate with them, and he is confirmed as to the main fact by Stiggins, whose account of them is as follows: The Puccunnas at this day are only known by tradition to have been a distinct people and their ancient town or habitation is called Puccun