Indian Tribes of North America

Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1953.

Sauk Indians

Sauk Indians. From Osā’kiwŭg, meaning “people of the outlet, or people of the yellow earth.” Also called: Hotǐ’nestakon’, Onondaga name. Satoeronnon, Huron name. Quatokeronon, Huron name. Za’-ke, Santee and Yankton Dakota name. Sauk Connections. The Sauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and the same subdivision as that embracing the Foxes and Kickapoo. Sauk Location. …

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Fox Indians

Fox Indians. A name thought to have been derived from that of the Fox clan and to have been applied to the tribe through a misunderstanding. Also called: Beshde’ke, Dakota name. Meshkwa kihig’, own name signifying “red earth people,” from the kind of earth from which they are supposed to have been created. O-dug-am-eeg, Chippewa …

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Kickapoo Indians

Kickapoo Indians. From Kiwegapaw`, “he stands about,” “he moves about, standing now here, now there.” Also called: A’-uyax, Tonkawa name, meaning “deer eaters.” Higabu, Omaha and Ponca name. I’-ka-dŭ’, Osage name. Shake-kah-quah, Wichita name. Shígapo, Shikapu, Apache name. Sik’-a-pu, Comanche name. Tékapu, Huron name. Yuatara’ye-ru’nu, a second Huron name, meaning “tribe living around the lakes.” …

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Menominee Indians

Menominee Indians were located on and near the Menominee River, Wisconsin, and in Michigan on or about the present location of Mackinac. The Menominee belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and to the same section as the Cree and Foxes.

Siksika Indians

Siksika Indians. Located in the territory stretching from North Saskatchewan River, Canada, to the southern. headstreams of the Missouri in Montana, and from about longitude 105° W. to the base of the Rocky Mountains. The Siksika belong to the Algonquian linguistic stock, forming the most aberrant of all the well-recognized tongues of that family except Arapaho and Atsina.

Apache Indians

Apache Indians. Located in southern New Mexico and Arizona, western Texas, and southeastern Colorado, also ranging over much of northern Mexico. Together with the Navaho, the Apache constituted the western group of the southern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Jemez Indians

Jemez Indians. Located on the north bank of Jemez River, about 20 miles north-west of Bernalillo.With the now extinct Pecos, the Jemez constituted a distinct group of the Tanoan linguistic family now a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.

Pueblo Indians

Pueblo Indians. A general name for those Indians in the Southwest who dwelt in stone buildings as opposed to the tribes living in more fragile shelters, pueblo being the word for “town” or “village” in Spanish. It is not a tribal or even a stock name, since the Pueblos belonged to four distinct stocks. Following is the classification of Pueblos made by F. W. Hodge (1910) except that the Kiowa have since been connected with the Tanoans and a few minor changes have been introduced,

Washo Indians

Washo Indians. On Truckee River as far down as the Meadows, though their right to the latter was disputed by the Northern Paiute tribes; Carson River down to the first large canyon below Carson City; the borders of Lake Tahoe; and Sierra and other valleys as far as the first range south of Honey Lake, Calififornia

Northern Paiute Indians

Northern Paiute. The Northern Paiute were not properly a tribe, the name being used for a dialectic division as indicated above. They covered western Nevada, southeastern Oregon, and a strip of California east of the Sierra Nevada as far south as Owens Lake except for territory occupied by the Washo. According to the students of the area, they were pushed out of Powder River Valley and the upper course of John Day River in the nineteenth century by Shahaptian tribes and the Cayuse.

Dakota Indians

Dakota Indians. The earliest known home of this tribe was on and near the Mississippi in southern Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin, and neighboring parts of Iowa. In 1825, after they had spread somewhat farther west, Long (1791) gives their boundaries thus: They were bounded by a curved line extending east of north from Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, so as to include all the eastern tributaries of the Mississippi, to the first branch of Chippewa River; thence by a line running west of north to Spirit Lake; thence westwardly to Crow Wing River, Minn., and up that stream to its head; thence westwardly to Red River and down that stream to Pembina; thence southwestwardly to the eastern bank of the Missouri near the Mandan villages; thence down the Missouri to a point probably not far from Soldiers River; thence east of north to Prairie du Chien. At a later time they occupied less territory toward the east but extended much farther westward between the Yellowstone and Platte Rivers.

Kalispel Indians

Kalispel Indians. On Pend Oreille River and Lake, Priest Lake, and the lower course of Clark’s Fork. They were said to have extended east-ward to Thompson Lake and Horse Plains and to have hunted over some of the Salmon River country, Canada, and were formerly said to have extended to Flathead Lake and Missoula.

Bannock Indians

Bannock Indians. In historic times their main center was in southeastern Idaho, ranging into western Wyoming, between latitude 42° and 45° North and from longitude 113° West eastward to the main chain of the Rocky Mountains. At times they spread well down Snake River, and some were scattered as far north as Salmon River and even into southern Montana.

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